An Introduction To The Science of Hadith
Author: Suhaib Hasan
THE CLASSIFICATION OF HADITH
All Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. Peace and blessings of Allah be
upon our Prophet Muhammad, and on his family and companions.
We have undoubtedly sent down the Reminder, and
We will truly preserve it.
(Al-Qur'an, Surah al-Hijr, 15:9)
The above promise made by Allah is obviously fulfilled in the undisputed
purity of the Qur'anic text throughout the fourteen centuries since its
revelation. However, what is often forgotten by many Muslims is that the above
divine promise also includes, by necessity, the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad
(may Allah bless him and grant him peace), for it is the practical example of
the implementation of the Qur'anic guidance, the Wisdom taught to the Prophet
(may Allah bless him and grant him peace) along with the Scripture, and neither
the Qur'an nor the Sunnah can be understood correctly without recourse to the
Hence, Allah preserved the Qur'an from being initially lost by the martyrdom
of its memorisers, by guiding the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, endorsed by the
consensus of the Messenger's Companions (may Allah bless him and grant him peace
and may He be pleased with them), to compile the ayat (signs, miracles,
"verses") of the Qur'an into one volume, after these had been scattered in
writing on various materials and in memory amongst many faithful hearts. He
safeguarded it from corruption by its enemies: disbelievers, heretics, and false
prophets, by enabling millions of believers to commit it to memory with ease. He
protected its teachings by causing thousands of people of knowledge to learn
from its deep treasures and convey them to the masses, and by sending renewers
of His Deen at the beginning of every century.
Similarly, Allah preserved the Sunnah by enabling the Companions and those
after them (may Allah be pleased with them) to memorise, write down and pass on
the statements of the Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and
the descriptions of his Way, as well as to continue the blessings of practising
the Sunnah. Later, as the purity of the knowledge of the Sunnah became
threatened, Allah caused the Muslim nation to produce outstanding individuals of
incredible memory-skills and analytical expertise, who journeyed tirelessly to
collect hundreds of thousands of narrations and distinguish the true words of
precious wisdom of their Messenger (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)
from those corrupted by weak memories, from forgeries by unscrupulous liars, and
from the statements of the enormous number of 'ulama', the Companions and those
who followed their way, who had taught in various centres of learning and helped
to transmit the legacy of Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) -
all of this achieved through precise attention to the words narrated and
detailed familiarity with the biographies of the thousands of reporters of
Hadith. Action being the best way to preserve teachings, the renewers of Islam
also revived the practice of the blessed authentic Sunnah.
Unfortunately however, statements will continue to be attributed to the
Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) although the person quoting
them may have no idea what the people of knowledge of Hadith have ruled
regarding those ahadith, thus ironically being in danger of contravening the
Prophet's widely-narrated stern warnings about attributing incorrect/unsound
statements to him. For example, here are some very
commonly-quoted ahadith, which actually vary tremendously
in their degree of authenticity from the Prophet (may Allah bless him
and grant him peace):
al-Ikhlas is worth a third of the Qur'an."
- The hadith about the
Ninety-Name Names of Allah.
- Allah says,
"I was a hidden treasure, and I wished to be known, so I created a creation
(mankind), then made Myself known to them, and they recognised Me."
- Allah says,
"Were it not for you (O Muhammad), I would not have created the universe."
- When Allah completed creation, He wrote in a Book (which is) with Him,
above His Throne,
"Verily, My Mercy will prevail over My Wrath."
- Allah says,
"Neither My heaven nor My earth can contain Me, but the heart of My believing
slave can contain Me."
"He who knows himself, knows his Lord."
"Where is Allah?"
"Love of one's homeland is part of Faith."
"I have left amongst you two things which, if you hold fast to them, you will
never stray: the Book of Allah, and my Sunnah."
"I have left among you that which if you abide by, you will never go astray:
the Book of Allah, and my Family, the Members of my House."
- The hadith giving ten Companions, by name,
good tidings of Paradise.
"If the iman (faith) of Abu Bakr was weighed against the iman of all the
people of the earth, the former would outweigh the latter."
"I am the City of Knowledge, and 'Ali is its Gate."
"My companions are like the stars: whichever of them you follow, you will be
"The differing amongst my Ummah is a mercy."
"My Ummah will split up into seventy-three sects: seventy-two will be in the
Fire, and one in the Garden."
- Prophecies about the
coming of the Mahdi (the guided one), Dajjal (the False Christ, the
Anti-Christ) and the return of Jesus Christ son of Mary.
Description of punishment and bliss in the grave, for the wicked and pious
Intercession by the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), and
the believers seeing Allah, on the Day of Judgment.
"Paradise is under the feet of mothers."
"Paradise is under the shade of swords."
"Seeking knowledge is a duty upon every Muslim."
"Seek knowledge, even if you have to go to China."
"The ink of the scholar is holier than the blood of the martyr."
"We have returned from the lesser Jihad to the greater Jihad (i.e. the
struggle against the evil of one's soul)."
The methodology of the expert scholars of Hadith in assessing such narrations
and sorting out the genuine from the mistaken/fabricated etc., forms the
subject-matter of a wealth of material left to us by the muhaddithun (scholars
of Hadith, "traditionists"). This short treatise is a humble effort to introduce
this extremely wide subject to English readers. The author has derived great
benefit from the outstanding scholarly work in this field, Muqaddimah Ibn al-
A brief explanation of the verdicts from the experts in this field on the
above ahadith is given in the Appendix.
We ask Allah to accept this work, and make it beneficial to its readers.
The Muslims are agreed that the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah
bless him and grant him peace) is the second of the two revealed fundamental
sources of Islam, after the Glorious Qur'an. The authentic Sunnah is contained
within the vast body of Hadith literature.1.
A hadith (pl. ahadith) is composed of two parts: the matn (text) and
the isnad (chain of reporters). A text may seem to be logical and
reasonable but it needs an authentic isnad with reliable reporters to be
acceptable; 'Abdullah b. al-Mubarak (d. 181 AH), one of the illustrious teachers
of Imam al-Bukhari, said, "The isnad is part of the religion: had it not been
for the isnad, whoever wished to would have said whatever he liked."2.
During the lifetime of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)
and after his death, his Companions (Sahabah) used to refer to him directly,
when quoting his sayings. The Successors (Tabi'un) followed suit; some of them
used to quote the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) through the
Companions while others would omit the intermediate authority - such a hadith
was later known as mursal. It was found that the missing link between the
Successor and the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) might be one
person, i.e. a Companion, or two people, the extra person being an older
Successor who heard the hadith from the Companion. This is an example of how the
need for the verification of each isnad arose; Imam Malik (d. 179) said, "The
first one to utilise the isnad was Ibn Shihab al- Zuhri" (d. 124).3.
The other more important reason was the deliberate fabrication of ahadith by
various sects which appeared amongst the Muslims, in order to support their
views (see later, under discussion of maudu' ahadith). Ibn Sirin (d. 110), a
Successor, said, "They would not ask about the isnad. But when the fitnah
(trouble, turmoil, esp. civil war) happened, they said: Name to us your men. So
the narrations of the Ahl al-Sunnah (Adherents to the Sunnah) would be accepted,
while those of the Ahl al-Bid'ah (Adherents to Innovation) would not be
As time passed, more reporters were involved in each isnad, and so the
situation demanded strict discipline in the acceptance of ahadith; the rules
regulating this discipline are known as Mustalah al-Hadith (the Classification
Amongst the early traditionists (muhaddithin, scholars of Hadith), the rules
and criteria governing their study of Hadith were meticulous but some of their
terminology varied from person to person, and their principles began to be
systematically written down, but scattered amongst various books, e.g. in Al-Risalah
of al- Shafi'i (d. 204), the Introduction to the Sahih of Muslim (d. 261) and
the Jami' of al-Tirmidhi (d. 279); many of the criteria of early traditionists,
e.g. al-Bukhari, were deduced by later scholars from a careful study of which
reporters or isnads were accepted and rejected by them.
One of the earliest writings to attempt to cover Mustalah comprehensively,
using standard (i.e. generally-accepted) terminology, was the work by al-Ramahurmuzi
(d. 360). The next major contribution was Ma'rifah 'Ulum al-Hadith by al- Hakim
(d. 405), which covered fifty classifications of Hadith, but still left some
points untouched; Abu Nu'aim al-Isbahani (d. 430) completed some of the missing
parts to this work. After that came Al-Kifayah fi 'Ilm al- Riwayah of al-Khatib
al-Baghdadi (d. 463) and another work on the manner of teaching and studying
Hadith; later scholars were considered to be greatly indebted to al-Khatib's
After further contributions by Qadi 'Iyad al- Yahsubi (d. 544) and Abu Hafs
al-Mayanji (d. 580) among others, came the work which, although modest in size,
was so comprehensive in its excellent treatment of the subject that it came to
be the standard reference for thousands of scholars and students of Hadith to
come, over many centuries until the present day: 'Ulum al- Hadith of Abu 'Amr 'Uthman
Ibn al-Salah (d. 643), commonly known as Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah, compiled while
he taught in the Dar al-Hadith of several cities in Syria. Some of the numerous
later works based on that of Ibn al-Salah are:
- An abridgement of Muqaddimah, Al-Irshad by al- Nawawi (d. 676), which he
later summarised in his Taqrib; al-Suyuti (d. 911) compiled a valuable
commentary on the latter entitled Tadrib al-Rawi.
- Ikhtisar 'Ulum al-Hadith of Ibn Kathir (d. 774), Al-Khulasah of al-Tibi (d.
743), Al- Minhal of Badr al-Din b. Jama'ah (d. 733), Al- Muqni' of Ibn al-Mulaqqin
(d. 802) and Mahasin al-Istilah of al-Balqini (d. 805), all of which are
abridgements of Muqaddimah Ibn al- Salah.
- Al-Nukat of al-Zarkashi (d. 794), Al-Taqyid wa 'l-Idah of al-'Iraqi (d.
806) and Al-Nukat of Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani (d. 852), all of which are further
notes on the points made by Ibn al- Salah.
- Alfiyyah al-Hadith of al-'Iraqi, a rewriting of Muqaddimah in the form of
a lengthy poem, which became the subject of several commentaries, including
two (one long, one short) by the author himself, Fath al-Mughith of al-Sakhawi
(d. 903), Qatar al-Durar of al- Suyuti and Fath al-Baqi of Shaykh Zakariyyah
al-Ansari (d. 928).
Other notable treatises on Mustalah include:
- Al-Iqtirah of Ibn Daqiq al-'Id (d. 702). Tanqih al-Anzar of Muhammad b.
Ibrahim al- Wazir (d. 840), the subject of a commentary by al-Amir al-San'ani
- Nukhbah al-Fikr of Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, again the subject of several
commentaries, including one by the author himself, one by his son Muhammad,
and those of 'Ali al-Qari (d. 1014), 'Abd al-Ra'uf al-Munawi (d. 1031) and
Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Hadi al-Sindi (d. 1138). Among those who rephrased the
Nukhbah in poetic form are al-Tufi (d. 893) and al- Amir al-San'ani.
- Alfiyyah al-Hadith of al-Suyuti, the most comprehensive poetic work in the
field. Al-Manzumah of al-Baiquni, which was expanded upon by, amongst others,
al-Zurqani (d. 1122) and Nawab Siddiq Hasan Khan (d. 1307). Qawa'id al-Tahdith
of Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi (d. 1332).
- Taujih al-Nazar of Tahir al-Jaza'iri (d. 1338), a summary of al-Hakim's
Mustalah books speak of a number of classes of hadith in accordance with
their status. The following broad classifications can be made, each of which is
explained in the later sections:
- According to the reference to a particular authority, e.g. the Prophet
(may Allah bless him and grant him peace), a Companion, or a Successor; such
ahadith are called marfu' (elevated), mauquf (stopped) and maqtu' (severed)
- According to the links in the isnad, i.e. whether the chain of reporters
is interrupted or uninterrupted, e.g. musnad (supported), muttasil
(continuous), munqati' (broken), mu'allaq (hanging), mu'dal (perplexing) and
- According to the number of reporters involved in each stage of the isnad,
e.g. mutawatir (consecutive) and ahad (isolated), the latter being divided
into gharib (scarce, strange), 'aziz (rare, strong), and mashhur (famous).
- According to the manner in which the hadith has been reported, such as
using the (Arabic) words 'an ("on the authority of"), haddathana ("he narrated
to us"), akhbarana (- "he informed us") or sami'tu ("I heard"). In this
category falls the discussion about mudallas (concealed) and musalsal
(uniformly-linked) ahadith. [Note: In the quotation of isnads in the
remainder of this book, the first mode of narration mentioned above will be
represented with a single broken line thus: ---. The three remaining modes of
narration mentioned above, which all strongly indicate a clear, direct
transmission of the hadith, are represented by a double line thus: ===.]
- According to the nature of the matn and isnad, e.g. an addition by a
reliable reporter, known as ziyadatu thiqah, or opposition by a lesser
authority to a more reliable one, known as shadhdh (irregular). In some cases,
a text containing a vulgar expression, unreasonable remark or
obviously-erroneous statement is rejected by the traditionists outright
without consideration of the isnad: such a hadith is known as munkar
(denounced). If an expression or statement is proved to be an addition by a
reporter to the text, it is declared as mudraj (interpolated).
- According to a hidden defect found in the isnad or text of a hadith.
Although this could be included in some of the previous categories, a hadith
mu'allal (defective hadith) is worthy to be explained separately. The defect
can be caused in many ways; e.g. two types of hadith mu'allal are known as
maqlub (overturned) and mudtarib (shaky).
- According to the reliability and memory of the reporters; the final
judgment on a hadith depends crucially on this factor: verdicts such as
sahih (sound), hasan (good), da'if (weak) and maudu' (fabricated,
forged) rest mainly upon the nature of the reporters in the isnad.
Mustalah al-Hadith is strongly associated with Rijal al-Hadith (the study of
the reporters of hadith). In scrutinising the reporters of a hadith,
authenticating or disparaging remarks made by recognised experts, from amongst
the Successors and those after them, were found to be of great help. Examples of
such remarks, in descending order of authentication, are:
- "Imam (leader), Hafiz (preserver)."
- "Reliable, trustworthy."
- "Makes mistakes."
- "Abandoned (by the traditionists)."
- "Liar, used to fabricate ahadith."5
Reporters who have been unanimously described by statements such as the first
two may contribute to a sahih ("sound", see later) isnad. An isnad containing a
reporter who is described by the last two statements is likely to be da'if
jiddan (very weak) or maudu' (fabricated). Reporters who are the subject of
statements such as the middle two above will cause the isnad to be da'if (weak),
although several of them relating the same hadith independently will often
increase the rank of the hadith to the level of hasan (good). If the remarks
about a particular reporter conflict, a careful verdict has to be arrived at
after in-depth analysis of e.g. the reason given for any disparagement, the
weight of each type of criticism, the relative strictness or leniency of each
The earliest remarks cited in the books of Rijal go back to a host of
Successors, followed by those after them until the period of the six canonical
traditionists, a period covering the first three centuries of Islam. A list of
such names is provided by the author in his thesis, Criticism of Hadith among
Muslims with reference to Sunan Ibn Majah, at the end of chapters IV, V and VI.
Among the earliest available works in this field are Tarikh of Ibn Ma'in (d.
233), Tabaqat of Khalifa b. Khayyat (d. 240), Tarikh of al- Bukhari (d. 256),
Kitab al-Jarh wa 'l-Ta'dil of Ibn Abi Hatim (d. 327) and Tabaqat of Muhammad b.
Sa'd (d. 320).
A number of traditionists made efforts specifically for the gathering of
information about the reporters of the five famous collections of hadith, those
of al-Bukhari (d. 256), Muslim (d. 261), Abu Dawud (d. 275), al- Tirmidhi (d.
279) and al-Nasa'i (d. 303), giving authenticating and disparaging remarks in
detail. The first major such work to include also the reporters of Ibn Majah (d.
273) is the ten-volume collection of al-Hafiz 'Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi (d. 600),
known as Al-Kamal fi Asma' al-Rijal. Later, Jamal al-Din Abu 'l-Hajjaj Yusuf b.
'Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi (d. 742) prepared an edited and abridged version of this
work, punctuated by places and countries of origin of the reporters; he named it
Tahdhib al- Kamal fi Asma' al-Rijal and produced it in twelve volumes. Further,
one of al-Mizzi's gifted pupils, Shams al-Din Abu 'Abdullah Muhammad b. Ahmad b.
'Uthman b. Qa'imaz al- Dhahabi (d. 748), summarised his shaikh's work and
produced two abridgements: a longer one called Tadhhib al-Tahdhib and a shorter
one called Al-Kashif fi Asma' Rijal al-Kutub al- Sittah.
A similar effort with the work of al-Mizzi was made by Ibn Hajar (d. 852),
who prepared a lengthy but abridged version, with about one- third of the
original omitted, entitled Tahdhib al-Tahdhib in twelve shorter volumes. Later,
he abridged this further to a relatively-humble two- volume work called Taqrib
The work of al-Dhahabi was not left unedited; al- Khazraji (Safi al-Din Ahmad
b. 'Abdullah, d. after 923) summarised it and also made valuable additions,
producing his Khulasah.
A number of similar works deal with either trustworthy reporters only, e.g.
Kitab al-Thiqat by al-'Ijli (d. 261) and Tadhkirah al-Huffaz by al-Dhahabi, or
with disparaged authorities only, e.g. Kitab al-Du'afa' wa al-Matrukin by al-
Nasa'i and Kitab al-Majruhin by Muhammad b. Hibban al-Busti (d. 354).
Two more works in this field which include a large number of reporters, both
authenticated and disparaged, are Mizan al-I'tidal of al- Dhahabi and Lisan al-Mizan
of Ibn Hajar.
The following principal types of hadith are important:
- Marfu' - "elevated": A narration from the Prophet (may
Allah bless him and grant him peace), e.g. a reporter (whether a Companion,
Successor or other) says, "The Messenger of Allah said ..." For example, the
very first hadith in Sahih al-Bukhari is as follows: Al- Bukhari === Al-Humaidi
'Abdullah b. al-Zubair === Sufyan === Yahya b. Sa'id al-Ansari === Muhammad b.
Ibrahim al-Taymi === 'Alqamah b. Waqqas al-Laithi, who said: I heard 'Umar b.
al- Khattab saying, while on the pulpit, "I heard Allah's Messenger (may Allah
bless him and grant him peace) saying: The reward of deeds depends on the
intentions, and every person will get the reward according to what he has
intended; so whoever emigrated for wordly benefits or for a woman to marry,
his emigration was for what he migrated."
- Mauquf - "stopped": A narration from a Companion only,
i.e. his own statement; e.g. al-Bukhari reports in his Sahih, in Kitab al-Fara'id
(Book of the Laws of Inheritance), that Abu Bakr, Ibn 'Abbas and Ibn al-Zubair
said, "The grandfather is (treated like) a father." It should be noted that
certain expressions used by a Companion generally render a hadith to be
considered as being effectively marfu' although it is mauquf on the face of
it, e.g. the following:
"We were commanded to ..."
"We were forbidden from ..."
"We used to do ..."
"We used to say/do ... while the Messenger of Allah was amongst us."
"We did not use to mind such-and-such..."
"It used to be said ..."
"It is from the Sunnah to ..."
"It was revealed in the following circumstances: ...", speaking about a verse
of the Qur'an.
- Maqtu'- "severed": A narration from a Successor, e.g.
Muslim reports in the Introduction to his Sahih that Ibn Sirin (d. 110) said,
"This knowledge (i.e. Hadith) is the Religion, so be careful from whom you
take your religion."
The authenticity of each of the above three types of hadith depends on other
factors such as the reliability of its reporters, the nature of the linkage
amongst them, etc. However, the above classification is extremely useful, since
through it the sayings of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)
can be distinguished at once from those of Companions or Successors; this is
especially helpful in debate about matters of Fiqh.
Imam Malik's Al-Muwatta', one of the early collections of hadith, contains a
relatively even ratio of these types of hadith, as well as mursal ahadith (which
are discussed later). According to Abu Bakr al-Abhari (d. 375), Al- Muwatta'
contains the following:
- 600 marfu' ahadith,
- 613 mauquf ahadith,
- 285 maqtu' ahadith, and
- 228 mursal ahadith; a total of 1726 ahadith.6
Among other collections, relatively more mauquf and maqtu' ahadith are found
in Al-Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shaibah (d. 235), Al-Musannaf of 'Abd al- Razzaq (d.
211) and the Tafsirs of Ibn Jarir (d. 310), Ibn Abi Hatim (d. 327) and Ibn al-Mundhir
Al-Hakim defines a musnad ("supported") hadith as follows: "A hadith which a
traditionist reports from his shaikh from whom he is known to have heard (ahadith)
at a time of life suitable for learning, and similarly in turn for each shaikh,
until the isnad reaches a well- known Companion, who in turn reports from the
Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)."8
By this definition, an ordinary muttasil hadith (i.e. one with an
uninterrupted isnad) is excluded if it goes back only to a Companion or
Successor, as is a marfu' hadith which has an interrupted isnad.
Al-Hakim gives the following example of a musnad hadith: We reported from Abu
'Amr 'Uthman b. Ahmad al-Sammak al-Baghdadi === Al-Hasan b. Mukarram === 'Uthman
b. 'Amr === Yunus --- al-Zuhri --- 'Abdullah b. Ka'b b. Malik --- his father,
who asked Ibn Abi Hadrad for payment of a debt he owed to him, in the mosque.
During the ensuing argument, their voices were raised until heard by the
Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), who eventually
lifted the curtain of his apartment and said, "O Ka'b! Write off a part of your
debt" - he meant remission of half of it. So he agreed, and the man paid him.
He then remarks,
"Now, my hearing from Ibn al-Simak is well- known, as is his from Ibn
Mukarram; al- Hasan's link with 'Uthman b. 'Amr and the latter's with Yunus b.
Zaid are known as well; Yunus is always remembered with al- Zuhri, and the
latter with the sons of Ka'b b. Malik, whose link to their father and his
companionship of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) are well-
The term musnad is also applied to those collections of ahadith which give
the ahadith of each Companion separately. Among the early compilers of such a
Musnad were Yahya b. 'Abd al- Hamid al-Himmani (d. 228) at Kufah and Musaddad b.
Musarhad (d. 228) at Basrah. The largest existing collection of ahadith of
Companions arranged in this manner is that of Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal (d. 241),
which contains around thirty thousand ahadith. Another larger work is attributed
to the famous Andalusian traditionist Baqi b. Makhlad al-Qurtubi (d. 276), but
unfortunately it is now untraceable.
Mursal, Munqati', Mu'dal, & Mu'allaq
If the link between the Successor and the Prophet (may Allah bless him and
grant him peace) is missing, the hadith is mursal ("hurried"), e.g. when a
Successor says, "The Prophet said ...".
However, if a link anywhere before the Successor (i.e. closer to the
traditionist recording the hadith) is missing, the hadith is munqati'
("broken"). This applies even if there is an apparent link, e.g. an isnad seems
to be muttasil ("continuous") but one of the reporters is known to have never
heard ahadith from his immediate authority, even though he may be his
contemporary. The term munqati' is also applied by some scholars to a narration
such as where a reporter says, "a man narrated to me ...", without naming this
If the number of consecutive missing reporters in the isnad exceeds one, the
isnad is mu'dal ("perplexing"). If the reporter omits the whole isnad and quotes
the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, directly (i.e. the link is
missing at the beginning, unlike the case with a mursal isnad), the hadith is
called mu'allaq ("hanging") - sometimes it is known as balaghah ("to reach");
for example, Imam Malik sometimes says in Al-Muwatta', "It reached me that the
Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said ..."
Example of a munqati' hadith
Al-Hakim reported from Muhammad b. Mus'ab === al- Auza'i --- Shaddad Abu 'Ammar
--- Umm al-Fadl bint al-Harith, who said: I came to the Messenger of Allah (may
Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said, "I have seen in a vision last
night as if a part of your body was cut out and placed in my lap." He said, "You
have seen something good. Allah Willing, Fatimah will give birth to a lad who
will be in your lap." After that, Fatimah gave birth to al- Husain, who used to
be in my lap, in accordance with the statement of the Messenger of Allah (may
Allah bless him and grant him peace). One day, I came to the Messenger of Allah
(may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and placed al- Husain in his lap. I
noticed that both his eyes were shedding tears. He said, "Jibril came to me and
told me that my Ummah will kill this son of mine, and he brought me some of the
reddish dust of that place (where he will be killed)."
Al-Hakim said, "This is a sahih hadith according to the conditions of the Two
Shaykhs (i.e. Bukhari & Muslim), but they did not collect it." Al-Dhahabi says,
"No, the hadith is munqati' and da'if, because Shaddad never met Umm al-Fadl and
Muhammad b. Mus'ab is weak."11
Example of a mu'dal hadith
Ibn Abi Hatim === Ja'far b. Ahmad b. al-Hakam Al- Qurashi in the year 254 ===
Sulaiman b. Mansur b. 'Ammar === 'Ali b. 'Asim --- Sa'id --- Qatadah --- Ubayy
b. Ka'b, who reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant
him peace) said, "After Adam had tasted from the tree, he ran away, but the tree
caught his hair. It was proclaimed: O Adam! Are you running away from Me? He
said: No, but I feel ashamed before You. He said: O Adam! Go away from My
neighbourhood, for By My Honour, no-one who disobeys Me can live here near Me;
even if I were to create people like you numbering enough to fill the earth and
they were to disobey Me, I would make them live in a home of sinners."
Ibn Kathir remarks, "This is a gharib hadith. There is inqita', in fact i'dal,
between Qatadah and Ubayy b. Ka'b, may Allah be pleased with them both."12
Authenticity of the Mursal Hadith
There has been a great deal of discussion amongst the scholars regarding the
authenticity of the Mursal Hadith (pl. Marasil), since it is quite probable that
a Successor might have omitted two names, those of an elder Successor and a
Companion, rather than just one name, that of a Companion.
If the Successor is known to have omitted the name of a Companion only, then
the hadith is held to be authentic, for a Successor can only report from the
Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) through a Companion; the
omission of the name of the Companion does not affect the authenticity of the
isnad since all Companions are held to be trustworthy and reliable, by both
Qur'anic injunctions and sayings of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant
However, opinions vary in the case where the Successor might have omitted the
names of two authorities (since not all the Successors were reliable in matters
of Hadith). For example, two widely-differing positions on this issue are:
- the Marasil of elder Successors such as Sa'id b. al-Musayyab (d. 94) and
'Ata' b. Abi Rabah (d. 114) are acceptable because all their Marasil, after
investigation, are found to come through the Companions only. However, the
Marasil of younger Successors are only acceptable if the names of their
immediate authorities are known through other sources; if not, they are
- the Marasil of Successors and those who report from them are acceptable
without any investigation at all. This opinion is supported by the Kufi school
of traditionists, but is severely attacked by the majority.
To be precise in this issue, let us investigate in detail the various
opinions regarding the Mursal Hadith:
- The opinion held by Imam Malik and all Maliki jurists is that the Mursal
of a trustworthy person is valid as proof and as justification for a practice,
just like a musnad hadith.13
This view has been developed to such an extreme that to some of them, the
mursal is even better than the musnad, based on the following reasoning: "the
one who reports a musnad hadith leaves you with the names of the reporters for
further investigation and scrutiny, whereas the one who narrates by way of
Irsal, being a knowledgeable and trustworthy person himself, has already done
so and found the hadith to be sound. In fact, he saves you from further
- Imam Abu Hanifah (d. 150) holds the same opinion as Malik; he accepts the
Mursal Hadith whether or not it is supported by another hadith.15
- Imam al-Shafi'i (d. 204) has discussed this issue in detail in his al-Risalah;
he requires the following conditions to be met before accepting a mursal
- In the narrative, he requires that one of the following conditions be
met: that it be reported also as musnad through another isnad; that its
contents be reported as mursal through another reliable source with a
different isnad; that the meaning be supported by the sayings of some
Companions; or that most scholars hold the same opinion as conveyed by the
- Regarding the narrator, he requires that one of the following conditions
be met: that he be an elder Successor; that if he names the person missing
in the isnad elsewhere, he does not usually name an unknown person or
someone not suitable for reporting from acceptably; or that he does not
contradict a reliable person when he happens to share with him in a
On the basis of these arguments, al-Shafi'i accepts the Irsal of Sa'id b.
al-Musayyab, one of the elder Successors. For example, al- Shafi'i considers
the issue of selling meat in exchange for a living animal: he says that Malik
told him, reporting from Zaid b. Aslam, who reported from Ibn al-Musayyab that
the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) forbade the
selling of meat in exchange for an animal. He then says, "This is our opinion,
for the Irsal of Ibn al-Musayyib is fine."17
- Imam Ahmad b. Hanbal (d. 241) accepts mursal and (other) da'if (weak)
ahadith if nothing opposing them is found regarding a particular issue,
preferring them to qiyas (analogical deduction). By da'if here is meant
ahadith which are not severely weak, e.g. batil, munkar, or maudu', since Imam
Ahmad classified ahadith into sahih and da'if rather than into sahih, hasan
and da'if, the preference of most later traditionists. Hence, the category
da'if in his view applied to ahadith which were relatively close to being
sahih, and included many ahadith which were classed as hasan by other
Overlooking this fact has caused misunderstanding about Imam Ahmad's view on
the place of da'if ahadith in rulings of Fiqh and in matters of Fada'il al-A'mal
(virtues of various acts of worship).
- Ibn Hazm (d. 456) rejects the Mursal Hadith outright; he says that the
Mursal is unacceptable, whether it comes through Sa'id b. al-Musayyib or al-Hasan
al-Basri. To him, even the Mursal which comes through someone who was not
well-known to be amongst the Companions would be unacceptable.19
- Abu Dawud (d . 275) accepts the Mursal under two conditions: that no
musnad hadith is found regarding that issue; or that if a musnad hadith is
found, it is not contradicted by the mursal hadith.20
- Ibn Abi Hatim (d. 327) does not give a specific opinion about the Mursal
Hadith. However, he did collect an anthology of 469 reporters of hadith,
including four female reporters, whose narratives were subjected to criticism
due to Irsal. This collection is known as Kitab al-Marasil.
- Al-Hakim (d. 405) is extremely reluctant to accept the Mursal Hadith
except in the case of elder Successors. He holds, on the basis of the Qur'an,
that knowledge is based on what is heard (directly), not on what is reported
(indirectly). In this regard, he quotes Yazid b. Harun who asked Hammad b.
Laith: "O Abu Isma'il! Did Allah mention the Ahl al-Hadith (scholars of
Hadith) in the Qur'an?" He replied, "Yes! Did you not hear the saying of
Allah, If a party from every expedition remained behind, they
could devote themselves to studies in religion and admonish the people when
they return to them, that thus they may guard themselves (against evil)' (Qur'an,
9:l22). This concerns those who set off to seek knowledge, and then
return to those who remained behind in order to teach them."22
Al-Hakim then remarks, "This verse shows that the acceptable knowledge is the
one which is being heard, not just received by way of Irsal."23
- Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. 462) strongly supports the view of those who
reject the Mursal except if it comes through an elder Successor. He concludes,
after giving a perusal of different opinions about this issue, "What we select
out of these sayings is that the Mursal is not to be practised, nor is it
acceptable as proof. We say that Irsal leads to one reporter being ambiguous;
if he is ambiguous, to ascertain his reliability is impossible. We have
already explained that a narration is only acceptable if it comes through a
reporter known for reliability. Hence, the Mursal should not be accepted at
Al-Khatib gives the following example, showing that a narrative which has been
reported through both musnad and mursal isnads is acceptable, not because of
the reliability of those who narrated it by way of Irsal but because of an
uninterrupted isnad, even though it contains less reliable reporters:
The text of the hadith is: "No marriage is valid except by the consent of the
guardian"; al- Khatib gives two isnads going back to Shu'bah and Sufyan al-Thauri;
the remainder of each isnad is:
Sufyan al-Thauri and Shu'bah --- Abu Ishaq --- Abu Burdah --- the Prophet.
This isnad is mursal because Abu Burdah, a Successor, narrates directly from
the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). However, al-Khatib
further gives three isnads going back to Yunus b. Abi Ishaq, Isra'il b. Yunus
and Qais b. al-Rabi'; the remainder of the first isnad is:
Yunus b. Abi Ishaq --- Abu Ishaq --- Abu Burdah --- Abu Musa --- the Prophet.
The other two reporters narrate similarly, both of them including the name of
Abu Musa, the Companion from whom Abu Burdah has reported. Al- Khatib goes on
to prove that both al-Thauri and Shu'bah heard this hadith from Abu Ishaq in
one sitting while the other three reporters heard it in different sittings.
Hence, this addition of Abu Musa in the isnad is quite acceptable.25
- Ibn al-Salah (d. 643) agrees with al-Shafi'i in rejecting the Mursal
Hadith unless it is proved to have come through a musnad route.26
- Ibn Taimiyyah (d. 728) classifies Mursal into three categories. He says,
"There are some acceptable, others unacceptable, and some which require
further investigation: if it is known that the reporter does so (i.e. narrates
by Irsal) from reliable authorities, then his report will be accepted; if he
does so from both classes of authorities, i.e. reliable and unreliable, we
shall not accept his narration (on its own, without further investigation),
for he is narrating from someone whose reliability is unknown; all such mursal
ahadith which go against the reports made by reliable authorities will be
- Al-Dhahabi (d. 748) regards the Mursal of younger Successors such as al-Hasan
al-Basri, al- Zuhri, Qatadah and Humaid al-Tawil as the weakest type of
Later scholars such as Ibn Kathir (d. 744), al- 'Iraqi (d. 806), Ibn Hajar (d.
852), al-Suyuti (d. 911), Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Wazir (d. 840), Jamal al-Din
al-Qasimi (d. 1332) and Tahir al- Jaza'iri (d. 1338) have given exhaustive
discussions about this issue, but none of them holds an opinion different to
those mentioned above.
Mutawatir & Ahad
Depending on the number of the reporters of the hadith in each stage of the
isnad, i.e. in each generation of reporters, it can be classified into the
general categories of mutawatir ("consecutive") or ahad ("single") hadith. A
mutawatir hadith is one which is reported by such a large number of people that
they cannot be expected to agree upon a lie, all of them together.29
Al-Ghazali (d. 505) stipulates that a mutawatir narration be known by the
sizeable number of its reporters equally in the beginning, in the middle and at
He is correct in this stipulation because some narrations or ideas, although
known as mutawatir among some people, whether Muslims or non-Muslims, originally
have no tawatur. There is no precise definition for a "large number of
reporters"; although the numbers four, five, seven, ten, twelve, forty and
seventy, among others, have all been variously suggested as a minimum, the exact
number is irrelevant (some reporters, e.g. Imams of Hadith, carry more weight
anyway than others who are their contemporaries): the important condition is
that the possibility of coincidence or "organised falsehood" be obviously
Examples of mutawatir practices are the five daily prayers, fasting, zakat,
the Hajj and recitation of the Qur'an. Among the verbal mutawatir ahadith, the
following has been reported by at least sixty-two Companions from the Prophet
(may Allah bless him and grant him peace), and has been widely-known amongst the
Muslims throughout the ages: "Whoever invents a lie and attributes it to me
intentionally, let him prepare his seat in the Fire."
Ahadith related to the description of the Haud Kauthar (the Basin of Abundant
Goodness) in the Hereafter, raising the hands at certain postures during prayer,
rubbing wet hands on the leather socks during ablution, revelation of the Qur'an
in seven modes, and the prohibition of every intoxicant are further examples of
verbal mutawatir ahadith.32
A hadith ahad or khabar wahid is one which is narrated by people whose number
does not reach that of the mutawatir case. Ahad is further classified into:
Gharib, 'Aziz & Mashhur
A hadith is termed gharib ("scarce, strange") when only a single reporter is
found relating it at some stage of the isnad. For example, the saying of the
Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace),
"Travel is a piece of punishment" is gharib; the isnad of this hadith
contains only one reporter in each stage: Malik --- Yahya b. Abi Salih --- Abu
Hurairah --- the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). With regard
to its isnad, this hadith is sahih, although most gharib ahadith are weak; Ahmad
b. Hanbal said, "Do not write these gharib ahadith because they are
unacceptable, and most of them are weak."33
A type of hadith similar to gharib is fard ("solitary"); it is known in three
- similar to gharib, i.e. a single person is found reporting it from a
- the people of one locality only are known to narrate the hadith;
- narrators from one locality report the hadith from narrators of another
locality, such as the people of Makkah reporting from the people of Madinah.34
If at any stage in the isnad, only two reporters are found to narrate the
hadith, it is termed 'aziz ("rare, strong"). For example, Anas reported that the
Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, "None of you
(truly) believes until I become more beloved to him than his father, his son,
and all the people."
Two reporters, Qatadah and 'Abdul 'Aziz b. Shu'aib, report this hadith from
Anas, and two more reporters narrate from each of them: Shu'bah and Sa'id report
from Qatada, and Isma'il b. Ulayyah and 'Abd al-Warith from 'Abd al-'Aziz; then
a group of people report from each of them.35
A hadith which is reported by more than two reporters is known as mashhur
("famous"). According to some scholars, every narrative which comes to be known
widely, whether or not it has an authentic origin, is called mashhur. A mashhur
hadith might be reported by only one or two reporters in the beginnning but
become widely-known later, unlike gharib or 'aziz, which are reported by one or
two reporters in the beginning and continue to have the same number even in the
times of the Successors and those after them. For example, if only one or two
reporters are found narrating hadith from a reliable authority in Hadith such as
al-Zuhri and Qatadah, the hadith will remain either gharib or 'aziz. On the
other hand, if a group of people narrate from them, it will be known as mashhur.36
According to al-'Ala'i (Abu Sa'id Khalil Salah al-Din, d. 761), a hadith may
be known as 'aziz and mashhur at the same time. By this he means a hadith which
is left with only two reporters in its isnad at any stage while it enjoys a host
of reporters in other stages, such as the saying of the Prophet (may Allah bless
him and grant him peace), "We are the last but (will be) the foremost on the Day
of Resurrection." This hadith is 'aziz in its first stage, as it is reported by
Hudhaifah b. al-Yaman and Abu Hurairah only. It later becomes mashhur as seven
people report it from Abu Hurairah.37
Mudallas hadith & Tadlis
Different ways of reporting, e.g. (he narrated to us), (he informed us), (I
heard), and (on the authority of) are used by the reporters of hadith. The first
three indicate that the reporter personally heard from his shaikh, whereas the
fourth mode can denote either hearing in person or through another reporter.
A mudallas ("concealed") hadith is one which is weak due to the uncertainty
caused by tadlis. Tadlis (concealing) refers to an isnad where a reporter has
concealed the identity of his shaikh. Ibn al-Salah describes two types of tadlis:
- tadlis al-isnad. A person reports from his shaikh whom he
met, what he did not hear from him, or from a contemporary of his whom he did
not meet, in such a way as to create the impression that he heard the hadith
in person. A mudallis (one who practises tadlis) here usually uses the mode
("on the authority of") or ("he said") to conceal the truth about the isnad.
- tadlis al-shuyukh. The reporter does mention his shaikh
by name, but uses a less well-known name, by-name, nickname etc., in order not
to disclose his shaikh's identity.38
Al-'Iraqi (d. 806), in his notes on Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah, adds a third
type of tadlis:
- tadlis al-taswiyyah. To explain it, let us assume an
isnad which contains a trustworthy shaikh reporting from a weak authority, who
in turn reports from another trustworthy shaikh. Now, the reporter of this
isnad omits the intermediate weak authority, leaving it apparently consisting
of reliable authorities. He plainly shows that he heard it from his shaikh but
he uses the mode "on the authority of" to link his immediate shaikh with the
next trustworthy one. To an average student, this isnad seems free of any
doubt or discrepancy. This is known to have been practised by Baqiyyah b. al-Walid,
Walid b. Muslim, al-A'mash and al- Thauri. It is said to be the worst among
the three kinds of tadlis.39
Ibn Hajar classifies those who practised tadlis into five categories in his
essay Tabaqat al- Mudallisin:
- Those who are known to do it occasionally, such as Yahya b. Sa'id al-Ansari.
- Those who are accepted by the traditionists, either because of their good
reputation and relatively few cases of tadlis, e.g. Sufyan al-Thauri (d. 161),
or because they reported from authentic authorities only, e.g. Sufyan Ibn 'Uyainah
- Those who practised it a great deal, and the traditionists have accepted
such ahadith from them which were reported with a clear mention of hearing
directly. Among these are Abu 'l- Zubair al-Makki, whose ahadith narrated from
the Companion Jabir b. 'Abdullah have been collected in Sahih Muslim. Opinions
differ regarding whether they are acceptable or not.
- Similar to the previous category, but the traditionists agree that their
ahadith are to be rejected unless they clearly admit of their hearing, such as
by saying "I heard"; an example of this category is Baqiyyah b. al- Walid.
- Those who are disparaged due to another reason apart from tadlis; their
ahadith are rejected, even though they admit of hearing them directly.
Exempted from them are reporters such as Ibn Lahi'ah, the famous Egyptian
judge, whose weakness is found to be of a lesser degree. Ibn Hajar gives the
names of 152 such reporters.40
Tadlis, especially of those in the last three categories, is so disliked that
Shu'bah (d. 170) said, "Tadlis is the brother of lying" and "To commit adultery
is more favourable to me than to report by way of Tadlis."41
A musalsal (uniformly-linked) isnad is one in which all the reporters, as
well as the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), use the same mode
of transmission such as 'an, haddathana, etc., repeat any other additional
statement or remark, or act in a particular manner while narrating the hadith.
Al-Hakim gives eight examples of such isnads, each having a different
characteristic repeated feature:
- use of the phrase sami'tu (I heard);
- the expression "stand and pour water for me so that I may illustrate the
way my shaikh performed ablution";
- haddathana (he narrated to us);
- amarani (he commanded me);
- holding one's beard;
- illustrating by counting on five fingers;
- the expression "I testify that ..."; and
- interlocking the fingers.42
Knowledge of musalsal helps in discounting the possibility of tadlis.
Shadhdh & Munkar
According to al-Shafi'i, a shadhdh ("irregular") hadith is one which is
reported by a trustworthy person but goes against the narration of a person more
reliable than him. It does not include a hadith which is unique in its contents
and is not narrated by someone else.43
In the light of this definition, the well-known hadith, "Actions are (judged)
according to their intentions", is not considered shadhdh since it has been
narrated by Yahya b. Sa'id al-Ansari from Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Taimi from 'Alqamah
from 'Umar, all of whom are trustworthy authorities, although each one of them
is the only reporter at that stage.44
An example of a shadhdh hadith according to some scholars is one which Abu
Dawud and al-Tirmidhi transmit, through the following isnad:
'Abdul Wahid b. Ziyad --- al-A'mash --- Abu Salih --- Abu Hurairah === the
Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace): "When one of you offers the
two rak'ahs before the Dawn Prayer, he should lie down on his right side."
Regarding it, al-Baihaqi said,
"'Abdul Wahid has gone against a large number of people with this narration, for
they have reported the above as an act of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and
grant him peace), and not as his saying; 'Abdul Wahid is alone amongst the
trustworthy students of al-A'mash in narrating these words."45
According to Ibn Hajar, if a narration which goes against another authentic
hadith is reported by a weak narrator, it is known as munkar (denounced).46
Traditionists as late as Ahmad used to simply label any hadith of a weak
reporter as munkar.47
Sometimes, a hadith is labelled as munkar because of its contents being contrary
to general sayings of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Al-Khatib
(d. 463) quotes al-Rabi' b. Khaitham (d. 63) as saying,
"Some ahadith have a light like that of day, which we recognise; others have a
darkness like that of night which makes us reject them."
He also quotes al-Auza'i (d. 157) as saying,
"We used to listen to ahadith and present them to fellow traditionists, just as
we present forged coins to money-changers: whatever they recognise of them, we
accept, and whatever they reject of them, we also reject."48
Ibn Kathir quotes the following two ahadith in his Tafsir, the first of which
is acceptable, whereas the second contradicts it and is unreliable:
- Ahmad === Abu Mu'awiyah === Hisham b. 'Urwah --- Fatimah bint al-Mundhir
--- Asma' bint Abi Bakr, who said, "My mother came (to Madinah) during the
treaty Quraish had made, while she was still a polytheist. So I came to the
Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said to him, 'O
Messenger of Allah, my mother has come willingly: should I treat her with
kindness?' He replied, 'Yes! Treat her with kindness'."
- Al-Bazzar === 'Abdullah b. Shabib === Abu Bakr b. Abi Shaibah === Abu
Qatadah al- 'Adawi --- the nephew of al-Zuhri --- al- Zuhri --- 'Urwah --- 'A'ishah
and Asma', both of whom said, "Our mother came to us in Madinah while she was
a polytheist, during the peace treaty between the Quraish and the Messenger of
Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). So we said, 'O Messenger of
Allah, our mother has come to Madinah willingly: do we treat her kindly?' He
said, 'Yes! Treat her kindly'."
Ibn Kathir then remarks:
"This (latter) hadith, to our knowledge is reported only through this route of
al- Zuhri --- 'Urwah --- 'A'ishah. It is a munkar hadith with this text because
the mother of 'A'ishah is Umm Ruman, who was already a Muslim emigrant, while
the mother of Asma' was another woman, as mentioned by name in other ahadith."49
In contrast to a munkar hadith, if a reliable reporter is found to add
something which is not narrated by other authentic sources, the addition is
accepted as long as it does not contradict them; and is known as ziyadatu thiqah
(an addition by one trustworthy).50
An example is the hadith of al-Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Ibn Mas'ud:
"I asked the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace),
'Which action is the most virtuous?' He said, 'The Prayer at its due time'." Two
reporters, Al-Hasan b. Makdam and Bindar, reported it with the addition, "... at
the beginning of its time"; both Al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban declared this addition
to be sahih.51
An addition by a reporter to the text of the saying being narrated is termed
For example, al-Khatib relates via Abu Qattan and Shababah --- Shu'bah ---
Muhammad b. Ziyad --- Abu Hurairah --- The Prophet (may Allah bless him and
grant him peace), who said,
"Perform the ablution fully; woe to the heels from the Fire!"
Al-Khatib then remarks,
"The statement, 'Perform the ablution fully' is made by Abu Hurairah, while the
statement afterwards, 'Woe to the heels from the Fire!', is that of the Prophet
(may Allah bless him and grant him peace). The distinction between the two is
understood from the narration of al- Bukhari, who transmits the same hadith and
quotes Abu Hurairah as saying, "Complete the ablution, for Abu 'l-Qasim (may
Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: Woe to the heels from the Fire!"."53
Such an addition may be found in the beginning, in the middle, or at the end,
often in explanation of a term used. Idraj (interpolation) is mostly found in
the text, although a few examples show that such additions are found in the
isnad as well, where the reporter grafts a part of one isnad into another.
A reporter found to be in the habit of intentional idraj is generally
unacceptable and considered a liar.54
However, the traditionists are more lenient towards those reporters who may do
so forgetfully or in order to explain a difficult word.
Before discussing ma'lul (defective) ahadith, a brief note on mudtarib
(shaky) and maqlub (reversed) ahadith would help in understanding ma'lul.
According to Ibn Kathir, if reporters disagree about a particular shaikh, or
about some other points in the isnad or the text, in such a way that none of the
opinions can be preferred over the others, and thus there is uncertainty about
the isnad or text, such a hadith is called mudtarib (shaky).55
For example with regard to idtirab in the isnad, it is reported on the
authority of Abu Bakr that he said, "O Messenger of Allah! I see you getting
older?" He (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) replied, "What made me old
are Surah Hud and its sister surahs." Al-Daraqutni says,
"This is an example of a mudtarib hadith. It is reported through Abu Ishaq,
but as many as ten different opinions are held about this isnad: some report it
as mursal, others as muttasil; some take it as musnad of Abu Bakr, others as
musnad of Sa'd or 'A'ishah. Since all these reports are comparable in weight, it
is difficult to prefer one above another. Hence, the hadith is termed as
As an example of idtirab in the text, Rafi' b. Khadij said that the Messenger
of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) forbade the renting of land.
The reporters narrating from Rafi' give different statements, as follows:
- Hanzalah asked Rafi', "What about renting for gold and silver?" He
replied, "It does not matter if it is rent for gold and silver."
- Rifa'ah --- Rafi' --- the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him
peace), who said, "Whoever owns a piece of land should cultivate it, give it
to his brother to cultivate, or abandon it."
- Salim --- Rafi' --- his two uncles --- the Prophet (may Allah bless him
and grant him peace), who forbade the renting of farming land.
- The son of Rafi' --- Rafi' --- the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant
him peace), who forbade the renting of land.
- A different narration by Rafi' from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and
grant him peace), who said, "Whoever owns a piece of land should either
cultivate it or give it to his brother to cultivate. He must not rent it for a
third or a quarter of the produce, nor for a given quantity of the produce."
- Zaid b. Thabit said, "May Allah forgive Rafi'! I am more aware of the
hadith than he; what happened was that two of the Ansar (Helpers) had a
dispute, so they came to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him
peace), who said after listening to their cases, 'If this is your position,
then do not rent the farms.' Rafi' has only heard the last phrase, i.e., 'Do
not rent the farms'."
Because of these various versions, Ahmad b. Hanbal said,
"The ahadith reported by Rafi' about the renting of land are mudtarib. They are
not to be accepted, especially when they go against the well-established hadith
of Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him
peace) gave the land of Khaibar to the Jews on condition that they work on it
and take half of the produce."57
A hadith is known as maqlub (changed, reversed) when its isnad is grafted to
a different text or vice versa, or if a reporter happens to reverse the order of
a sentence in the text.
As an example relating to the text, in his transmission of the famous hadith
describing the seven who will be under the shelter of Allah on the Day of
Judgment, Muslim reports one of the categories as, "a man who conceals his act
of charity to such an extent that his right hand does not know what his left
hand gives in charity." This sentence has clearly been reversed by a reporter,
because the correct wording is recorded in other narrations of both al-Bukhari
and Muslim as follows: "... that his left hand does not know what his right hand
The famous trial of al-Bukhari by the scholars of Baghdad provides a good
example of a maqlub isnad. The traditionists, in order to test their visitor,
al-Bukhari, appointed ten men, each with ten ahadith. Now, each hadith (text) of
these ten people was prefixed with the isnad of another. Imam al-Bukhari
listened to each of the ten men as they narrated their ahadith and denied the
correctness of every hadith. When they had finished narrating these ahadith, he
addressed each person in turn and recounted to him each of his ahadith with its
correct isnad. This trial earned him great honour among the scholars of Baghdad.59
Other ways in which ahadith have been rendered maqlub are by replacement of
the name of a reporter with another, e.g. quoting Abu Hurairah as the reporter
from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) although the actual
reporter was someone else, or by reversal of the name of the reporter, e.g.
mentioning Walid b. Muslim instead of Muslim b. Walid, or Ka'b b. Murrah instead
of Murrah b. Ka'b.60
Ma'lul or Mu'allal
Ibn al-Salah says, "A ma'lul (defective) hadith is one which appears to be
sound, but thorough research reveals a disparaging factor." Such factors can be:
- declaring a hadith musnad when it is in fact mursal, or marfu' when it is
in fact mauquf;
- showing a reporter to narrate from his shaikh when in fact he did not meet
the latter; or attributing a hadith to one Companion when it in fact comes
Ibn al-Madini (d. 324) says that such a defect can only be revealed if all
the isnads of a particular hadith are collated. In his book al- 'Ilal, he gives
thirty-four Successors and the names of those Companions from whom each of them
heard ahadith directly. For example, he says that al-Hasan al-Basri (d. 110,
aged 88) did not see 'Ali (d. 40), although he adds that there is a slight
possibility that he may have seen him during his childhood in Madinah.62
Such information is very important, since for example, many Sufi traditions go
back to al- Hasan al-Basri, who is claimed to report directly from 'Ali.
Being a very delicate branch of Mustalah al- Hadith, only a few well-known
traditionists such as Ibn al-Madini (d. 234), Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi (d. 327),
al-Khallal (d. 311) and al-Daraqutni (d. 385), have compiled books about it. Ibn
Abi Hatim, in his Kitab al-'Ilal, has given 2840 examples of ma'lul ahadith
about a range of topics.
An example of a ma'lul hadith is one transmitted by Muslim on the authority
of Abu Hurairah, who reports the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him
peace) as saying,
"Allah created the land on Saturday; He created the mountains on Sunday; He
created the trees on Monday; He created the things entailing labour on Tuesday;
He created the light (or fish) on Wednesday; He scattered the beasts in it (the
earth) on Thursday; and He created Adam after the afternoon of Friday, the last
creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday, between the afternoon and
Regarding it, Ibn Taimiyyah says,
"Men more knowledgeable than Muslim, such as al-Bukhari and Yahya b. Ma'in, have
criticised it. Al-Bukhari said, 'This saying is not that of the Prophet (may
Allah bless him and grant him peace), but one of Ka'b al-Ahbar'."64
The final verdict on a hadith, i.e. sahih (sound), hasan (good), da'if (weak)
or maudu' (fabricated, forged), depends critically on this factor.
Among the early traditionists, mostly of the first two centuries, ahadith
were classified into two categories only: sahih and da'if; al- Tirmidhi was to
be the first to distinguish hasan from da'if. This is why traditionists and
jurists such as Ahmad, who seemed to argue on the basis of da'if ahadith
sometimes, were in fact basing their argument on the ahadith which were later to
be known as hasan.65
We now examine in more detail these four important classes of ahadith.
Al-Shafi'i states the following requirement in order for a hadith which is
not mutawatir to be acceptable:
"Each reporter should be trustworthy in his religion; he should be known to
be truthful in his narrating, to understand what he narrates, to know how a
different expression can alter the meaning, and report the wording of the hadith
verbatim, not only its meaning. This is because if he does not know how a
different expression can change the whole meaning, he will not know if he has
changed what is lawful into what is prohibited. Hence, if he reports the hadith
according to its wording, no change of meaning will be found at all. Moreover,
he should be a good memoriser if he happens to report from his memory, or a good
preserver of his writings if he happens to report from them. He should agree
with the narrations of the huffaz (leading authorities in Hadith), if he reports
something which they do also. He should not be a mudallis, who narrates from
someone he met something he did not hear, nor should he report from the Prophet
(may Allah bless him and grant him peace) contrary to what reliable sources have
reported from him. In addition, the one who is above him (in the isnad) should
be of the same quality, [and so on,] until the hadith goes back uninterrupted to
the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) or any authority below
Ibn al-Salah, however, defines a sahih hadith more precisely by saying:
"A sahih hadith is the one which has a continuous isnad, made up of reporters
of trustworthy memory from similar authorities, and which is found to be free
from any irregularities (i.e. in the text) or defects (i.e. in the isnad)."
By the above definition, no room is left for any weak hadith, whether, for
example, it is munqati', mu'dal, mudtarib, maqlub, shadhdh, munkar, ma'lul, or
contains a mudallis. The definition also excludes hasan ahadith, as will be
discussed under that heading.
Of all the collectors of hadith, al-Bukhari and Muslim were greatly admired
because of their tireless attempts to collect sahih ahadith only. It is
generally understood that the more trustworthy and of good memory the reporters,
the more authentic the hadith. The isnad: al- Shafi'i --- Malik --- Nafi' ---
'Abdullah b. 'Umar --- The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), is
called a "golden isnad" because of its renowned reporters.67
Some traditionists prefer Sahih al-Bukhari to Sahih Muslim because al-Bukhari
always looked for those reporters who had either accompanied or met each other,
even if only once in their lifetime. On the other hand, Muslim would accept a
reporter who is simply found to be contemporary to his immediate authority in
The following grading is given for sahih ahadith only:
- those which are transmitted by both al- Bukhari and Muslim;
- those which are transmitted by al-Bukhari only;
- those which are transmitted by Muslim only;
those which are not found in the above two collections, but
- which agree with the requirements of both al-Bukhari and Muslim;
- which agree with the requirements of al- Bukhari only;
- which agree with the requirements of Muslim only; and
- those declared sahih by other traditionists.69
Al-Tirmidhi means by hadith hasan: a hadith which is not shadhdh, nor
contains a disparaged reporter in its isnad, and which is reported through more
than one route of narration.70
Al-Khattabi (d. 388) states a very concise definition, "It is the one where
its source is known and its reporters are unambiguous."
By this he means that the reporters of the hadith should not be of a doubtful
nature, such as with the mursal or munqati' hadith, or one containing a mudallis.
Ibn al-Salah classifies hasan into two categories:
- one with an isnad containing a reporter who is mastur ("screened", i.e. no
prominent person reported from him) but is not totally careless in his
reporting, provided that a similar text is reported through another isnad as
- one with an isnad containing a reporter who is known to be truthful and
reliable, but is a degree less in his preservation/memory of hadith in
comparison to the reporters of sahih ahadith.
In both categories, Ibn al-Salah requires that the hadith be free of any
Al-Dhahabi, after giving the various definitions, says, "A hasan hadith is
one which excels the da'if but nevertheless does not reach the standard of a
In the light of this definition, the following isnads are hasan according to al-Dhahabi:
- Bahz b. Hakam --- his father --- his grandfather;
- 'Amr b. Shu'aib --- his father --- his grandfather;
- Muhammad b. 'Amr --- Abu Salamah --- Abu Hurairah.
Reporters such as al-Harith b. 'Abdullah, 'Asim b. Damurah, Hajjaj b. Artat,
Khusaif b. 'Abd al- Rahman and Darraj Abu al-Samh attract different verdicts:
some traditionists declare their ahadith hasan, others declare them da'if.73
Example of a hasan hadith
Malik, Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi and al-Hakim reported through their isnads
from 'Amr b. Shu'aib --- his father --- his grandfather, that the Messenger of
Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said,
"A single rider is a devil (i.e. disobedient), two riders are two devils,
but three makes a travelling party."
Al-Tirmidhi declares this hadith to be hasan because of the above isnad,
which falls short of the requirements for a sahih hadith.74
Several weak ahadith may mutually support each other to the level of hasan
According to the definitions of al-Tirmidhi and Ibn al-Salah, a number of
similar weak ahadith on a particular issue can be raised to the degree of hasan
if the weakness found in their reporters is of a mild nature. Such a hadith is
known as hasan li ghairihi (hasan due to others), to distinguish it from the
type previously-discussed, which is hasan li dhatihi (hasan in itself).
Similarly, several hasan ahadith on the same subject may make the hadith sahih
li ghairihi, to be distinguished from the previously-discussed sahih li dhatihi.
However, in case the weakness is severe (e.g., the reporter is accused of
lying or the hadith is itself shadhdh), such very weak ahadith will not support
each other and will remain weak. For example, the well-known hadith, "He who
preserves forty ahadith for my Ummah will be raised by Allah on the Day of
Resurrection among the men of understanding", has been declared to be da'if by
most of the traditionists, although it is reported through several routes.75
A hadith which fails to reach the status of hasan is da'if. Usually, the
weakness is one of discontinuity in the isnad, in which case the hadith could be
mursal, mu'allaq, mudallas, munqati' or mu'dal, according to the precise nature
of the discontinuity, or one of a reporter having a disparaged character, such
as due to his telling lies, excessive mistakes, opposition to the narration of
more reliable sources, involvement in innovation, or ambiguity surrounding his
The smaller the number and importance of defects, the less severe the
weakness. The more the defects in number and severity, the closer the hadith
will be to being maudu' (fabricated).76
Some ahadith, according to the variation in the nature of the weakness
associated with its reporters, rank at the bottom of the hasan grade or at the
top of the da'if grade. Reporters such as 'Abdullah b. Lahi'ah (a famous judge
from Egypt), 'Abd al-Rahman b. Zaid b. Aslam, Abu Bakr b. Abi Maryam al-Himsi,
Faraj b. Fadalah, and Rishdin b. Sa'd attract such types of varying ranks as
they are neither extremely good preservers nor totally abandoned by the
Al-Dhahabi defines maudu' (fabricated, forged) as the term applied to a
hadith, the text of which goes against the established norms of the Prophet's
sayings (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), or its reporters include a
liar, e.g. the forty ahadith known as Wad'aniyyah or the small collection of
ahadith which was fabricated and claimed to have been reported by 'Ali al-Rida,
the eighth Imam of the Ithna 'Ashari Shi'ah.78
A number of traditionists have collected fabricated ahadith separately in
order to distinguish them from other ahadith; among them are Ibn al-Jauzi in al-Maudu'at,
al-Jauzaqani in Kitab al-Abatil, al-Suyuti in al-La'ali al- Masnu'ah fi 'l-Ahadith
al-Maudu'ah, and 'Ali al- Qari in al-Maudu'at.
Some of these ahadith were known to be spurious by the confession of their
inventors. For example, Muhammad b. Sa'id al-Maslub used to say, "It is not
wrong to fabricate an isnad for a sound statement."79
Another notorious inventor, 'Abd al-Karim Abu 'l-Auja, who was killed and
crucified by Muhammad b. Sulaiman b. 'Ali, governor of Basrah, admitted that he
had fabricated four thousand ahadith declaring lawful the prohibited and
Maudu' ahadith are also recognised by external evidence related to a
discrepancy found in the dates or times of a particular incident.81
For example, when the second caliph, 'Umar b. al- Khattab decided to expel the
Jews from Khaibar, some Jewish dignitaries brought a document to 'Umar
apparently proving that the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)
had intended that they stay there by exempting them from the jizyah (tax on
non-Muslims under the rule of Muslims); the document carried the witness of two
Companions, Sa'd b. Mu'adh and Mu'awiyah b. Abi Sufyan. 'Umar rejected the
document outright, knowing that it was fabricated because the conquest of
Khaibar took place in 6 AH, whereas Sa'd b. Mu'adh died in 3 AH just after the
Battle of the Trench, and Mu'awiyah embraced Islam in 8 AH, after the conquest
The author, in his Criticism of Hadith among Muslims with reference to Sunan
Ibn Majah, has given more examples of fabricated ahadith under the following
eight categories of causes of fabrication:83
- political differences;
- factions based on issues of creed;
- fabrications by zanadiqah (enemies-within spreading heretical beliefs);
- fabrications by story-tellers;
- fabrications by ignorant ascetics;
- prejudice in favour of town, race or a particular imam;
- inventions for personal motives;
- proverbs turned into ahadith.
Similar to the last category above is the case of Isra'iliyat ("Israelite
traditions"), narrations from the Jews and the Christians84
which were wrongly attributed to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him
The above-mentioned classification of ahadith plays a vital role in
ascertaining the authenticity of a particular narration. Ibn al- Salah mentions
sixty-five terms in his book, of which twenty-three have been discussed above.
Two further types not included by Ibn al-Salah, mu'allaq and mutawatir, have
been dealt with from other sources. The remaining forty-two types follow in
brief, which help further distinguish between different types of narrations.
- Knowledge of i'tibar ("consideration"), mutaba'ah ("follow-up") and
shawahid ("witnesses"). Traditionists are always in search of strengthening
support for a hadith which is reported by one source only; such research is
termed i'tibar. If a supporting narration is not found for a particular hadith,
it is declared as fard mutlaq (absolutely singular) or gharib. For example, if
a hadith is reported through the following isnad: Hammad b. Salamah - -- Ayyub
--- Ibn Sirin --- Abu Hurairah --- the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant
him peace), research would be done to ascertain whether another trustworthy
reporter has narrated it from Ayyub; if so, it will be called mutaba'ah tammah
(full follow-up); if not, a reporter other than Ayyub narrating from Ibn Sirin
would be sought: if so, it will be called mutaba'ah qasirah (incomplete
follow-up). Whereas mutaba'ah applies to the isnad, i.e. other narrations from
the same reporters, a narration which supports the text (meaning) of the
original hadith, although it may be through a completely different isnad, is
called a shahid ("witness").85
- Afrad (singular narrations).
- The type of character required in an acceptable reporter.
- The way a hadith is heard, and the different ways of acquiring ahadith.
- How a hadith is written, and punctuation marks used.
- The way a hadith is reported.
- The manners required in traditionists.
- The manners required in students of Hadith.
- Knowledge of a higher or lower isnad (i.e. one with less or more reporters
- Knowledge of difficult words.
- Knowledge of abrogated ahadith.
- Knowledge of altered words in a text or isnad.
- Knowledge of contradictory ahadith.
- Knowledge of additions made to an isnad (i.e. by an inserting the name of
an additional reporter).
- Knowledge of a well-concealed type of mursal hadith.
- Knowledge of the Companions.
- Knowledge of the Successors.
- Knowledge of elders reporting from younger reporters.
- Knowledge of reporters similar in age reporting from each other.
- Knowledge of brothers and sisters among reporters.
- Knowledge of fathers reporting from their sons.
- Knowledge of sons reporting from their fathers.
- Knowledge of cases where e.g. two reporters report from the same
authority, one in his early life and the other in his old age; in such cases
the dates of death of the two reporters will be of significance.
- Knowledge of such authorities from whom only one person reported.
- Knowledge of such reporters who are known by a number of names and titles.
- Knowledge of unique names amongst the Companions in particular and the
reporters in general.
- Knowledge of names and by-names (kunyah).
- Knowledge of by-names for reporters known by their names only.
- Knowledge of nicknames (alqab) of the traditionists.
- Knowledge of mu'talif and mukhtalif (names written similarly but
pronounced differently), e.g. Kuraiz and Kariz.
- Knowledge of muttafiq and muftariq (similar names but different
identities), e.g. "Hanafi": there are two reporters who are called by this
name; one because of his tribe Banu Hanifah; the other because of his
attribution to a particular Madhhab (school of thought in jurisprudence).
- Names covering both the previous types.
- Names looking similar but they differ because of the difference in their
father's names, e.g. Yazid b. al-Aswad and al-Aswad b. Yazid.
- Names attributed to other than their fathers, e.g. Isma'il b. Umayyah; in
this case Umayyah is the mother's name.
- Knowledge of such titles which have a meaning different from what they
seem to be, e.g. Abu Mas'ud al-Badri, not because he witnessed the battle of
Badr but because he came to live there; Mu'awiyah b. 'Abdul Karim al- Dall
("the one going astray"), not because of his beliefs but because he lost his
way while travelling to Makkah; and 'Abdullah b. Muhammad al-Da'if ("the
weak"), not because of his reliability in Hadith, but due to a weak physique.
- Knowledge of ambiguous reporters by finding out their names.
- Knowledge of the dates of birth and death of reporters.
- Knowledge of trustworthy and weak reporters.
- Knowledge of trustworthy reporters who became confused in their old age.
- Knowledge of contemporaries in a certain period.
- Knowledge of free slaves (mawali) amongst the reporters.
- Knowledge of the homelands and home towns of reporters.86
- Mutawatir, as declared by many scholars, including Ibn
Taimiyyah, al-Suyuti, Najm al-Din al-Iskandari (d. 981) and al-'Ijlouni (d. 1162). About
this hadith, al-Daraqutni said, "It is the most authentic one regarding the virtues
of any surah." It is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim and others.
- The following is the sahih hadith of al- Bukhari,
Muslim, al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ibn 'Asakir: "Verily, Allah has Ninety-Nine Names
which if a person safeguards them, he will enter the Garden." In some narrations of
this hadith found in al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim and others, the names are listed at
the end; however, at least three different listings are given, e.g. one list being,
"He is Allah, besides whom there is no other deity, the Merciful, the Compassionate,
..., the Forbearing" while another is "Allah, the Unique, the Absolute, ..., the
One who has nothing like unto Him." It is agreed that these latter narrations are
da'if, and this is why al-Bukhari and Muslim did not include them in their Sahihs.
Al-Tirmidhi says in his Sunan, "This (version of the) hadith is gharib; it has been
narrated from various routes on the authority of Abu Hurairah, but we do not know of the
mention of the Names in the numerous narrations, except this one." Ibn Taimiyyah
says, "Al-Walid (one of the narrators of the hadith) related the Names from (the
saying of) one of his Syrian teachers ... specific mention of the Names is not from the
words of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), by the agreement of those
familiar with Hadith."87 Ibn Kathir says in his Tafsir, under
verse 180 of Surah al- A'raf, that these narrations are mudraj. Ibn Hajar takes a similar
view in his commentary on Sahih al-Bukhari. Various scholars have given different lists of
99 Names from their study of the Qur'an and Sunnah, including Ja'far al- Sadiq, Sufyan b.
'Uyainah, Ibn Hazm, al-Qurtubi, Ibn Hajar and Salih b. 'Uthaimin.
- Ibn Taimiyyah says, "It is not from the words of
the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), and there is no known isnad for it,
neither sahih nor da'if"; al-Zarkashi (d. 794), Ibn Hajar, al-Suyuti and others
agreed with him. Al-Qari says, "But its meaning is correct, deduced from the
statement of Allah, I have not created the Jinn and Mankind, except to worship Me, i.e. to
recognise/know me, as Ibn 'Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) has
explained." These statements are mentioned by al-'Ijlouni, who adds, "This
saying occurs often in the words of the Sufis, who have relied on it and built upon it
some of their principles."88
- Al-'Ijlouni says, "Al-Saghani (d. 650) said:
Maudu'. I say: But its meaning is correct, even if it is not a hadith." no. 2123.
'Ali al- Qari says, "But its meaning is correct, for al- Dailami has related from Ibn
'Abbas as marfu': 'that Jibril came to me and said: O Muhammad! Were it not for you, the
Garden would not have been created, and were it not for you, the Fire would not have been
created', and in the narration of Ibn 'Asakir: 'Were it not for you, the world would not
have been created'." Al- Albani also quotes al-Saghani's verdict, and comments on
al-Qari's words thus, "It is not appropriate to certify the correctness of its
meaning without establishing the authenticity of the narration from al-Dailami, which is
something I have not found any of the scholars to have addressed. Personally, although I
have not come across its isnad, I have no doubt about its weakness; enough of an
indication for us is that al-Dailami is alone in reporting it. As for the narration of Ibn
'Asakir, Ibn al-Jauzi also related it in a long marfu' hadith from Salman and said, 'It is
maudu', and al-Suyuti endorsed this in al-La'ali."89
- Sahih - related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
- Al-'Ijlouni says, "Al-Ghazali mentioned it in Ihya'
'Ulum al-Din with the wording, Allah says, "Neither My heaven nor My earth could
contain Me, but the soft, humble heart of my believing slave can contain Me."
Al-'Iraqi said in his notes on Al-Ihya', "I do not find a basis (i.e. isnad) for
it", and al-Suyuti agreed with him, following al-Zarkashi. Al-'Iraqi then said,
"But in the hadith of Abu 'Utbah in al-Tabarani there occurs: ... the vessels of your
Lord are the hearts of His righteous slaves, and the most beloved to Him are the softest
and most tender ones." Ibn Taimiyyah said, "It is mentioned in the Israelite
traditions, but there is no known isnad from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant
him peace) for it." Al-Sakhawi said in Al- Maqasid, following his shaykh al-Suyuti in
Al- La'ali, "There is no known isnad from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant
him peace) for it, and its meaning is that his heart can contain belief in Me, love of Me
and gnosis of Me. But as for the one who says that Allah incarnates in the hearts of the
people, then he is more of an infidel than the Christians, who specified that to Christ
alone. It seems that Ibn Taimiyyah's mention of Israelite tradition refers to what Ahmad
has related in Al-Zuhd from Wahb b. Munabbih who said that Allah opened the heavens for
Ezekiel until he saw the Throne, so Ezekiel said, 'How Perfect are You! How Mighty are
You, O Lord!' So Allah said, 'Truly, the heavens and the earth were too weak to contain
Me, but the soft, humble heart of my believing slave contains Me'." He also quoted
from al- Zarkashi's writing that one of the scholars said that it is a false hadith,
fabricated by a renegade (from the religion), and that it is most-often quoted by a
preacher to the masses, 'Ali b. Wafa, for his own purposes, who says at the time of
spiritual rapture and dance, "Go round the House of your Lord." He further said
that al-Tabarani has related from Abu 'Utbah al- Khawlani as marfu', "Truly, Allah
has vessels from amongst the people of the earth, and the vessels of your Lord are the
hearts of his righteous slaves, and the most beloved of them to Him are the softest and
most tender ones"; in its isnad is Baqiyyah b. al-Walid, a mudallis, but he has
clearly stated hearing the hadith."90 Al-Albani rates this
last hadith mentioned as hasan.91
- Al-Nawawi said, "It is not established." Ibn
Taimiyyah said, "Maudu'." Al-Sam'ani said, "It is not known as marfu', but
it is quoted as a statement of Yahya b. Mu'adh al-Razi." Al- Suyuti endorsed
al-Nawawi's words, and also said, "This hadith is not authentic." Al-
Fairozabadi said, "It is not a Prophetic statement, although most of the people think
it is a hadith, but it is not authentic at all. In fact, it is only related in the
Israelite traditions: O Man! Know yourself: you will know your Lord." Ibn al-Gharas
said, after quoting al-Nawawi's verdict, "... but the books of the Sufis, such as
Shaykh Muhi al-Din Ibn 'Arabi and others, are filled with it, being quoted like a
hadith." Ibn 'Arabi also said, "This hadith, although it is not proved by way of
narration, is proved to us by way of Kashf ('unveiling', while in a trance)."92 Regarding this methodology, al-Albani says, "Authenticating
ahadith by way of Kashf is a wicked innovation of the Sufis, and depending upon it leads
to the authentication of false, baseless ahadith ... This is because, even at the best of
times, Kashf is like opinion, which may be right or wrong - and that is if no personal
desires enter into it! We ask Allah to save us from it, and from everything with which He
is not pleased."93
- Sahih. Related by Malik in Al-Muwatta', al- Shafi'i in
Al-Risalah (p. 110, Eng. trans.) and Muslim (1:382; Eng. trans. 1:272). This was the first
of two questions which the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) put to a
slave-girl to test her faith, the second one being, "Who am I?" She answered,
"Above the heaven" and "You are the Messenger of Allah" respectively,
to which he said, "Free her, for she is a believer." Her first answer, which is
found in the Qur'an (67:16-17, the word fi can mean 'above/on', as in 6:11, 20:71 &
27:8), means that Allah is above and separate from His creation, not mixed in with it, the
erroneous belief which leads to worship of creation.
- Maudu', as stated by al-Saghani and others. Scholars
differ as to whether its meaning is correct or not, in what way, and to what extent.94 It is sometimes used to justify divisive, anti- Islamic nationalism and
- Sahih. Related by Malik as mursal/mu'allaq/balaghat
(depending on choice of terminology), and related twice as musnad by al- Hakim. The
meaning of the hadith is contained in the Qur'an, in the mention of the Book and Wisdom
(2:129, 2:151, 2:231, 3:164, 4:113, 33:34 & 62:2); al-Shafi'i says, "I have heard
the most knowledgeable people about the Qur'an say that the Wisdom is the Sunnah"
(Al-Risalah, Eng. trans., p. 111).
- Sahih. Related by al-Tirmidhi, Ahmad, Ibn Abi 'Asim,
al-Hakim, al-Tabarani, al-Dailami and al-Tahawi.95 The phrase Ahl
al-Bayt (members of the house) refers: (i) primarily to the Prophet's wives (may Allah
bless him and grant him peace), from the clear context of the relevant verse of the Qur'an
(33:33); (ii) to 'Ali, Fatimah, Hasan & Husain, from the "hadith of the
garment" (cf. Sahih Muslim, Book of the Virtues of the Companions). It is imbalanced
and unjust to exclude either of these categories from the hadith.
- A sahih hadith related by Abu Dawud, al- Tirmidhi, Ibn
Majah & Ahmad, and well-known amongst the people. The fullest narration is, "Abu
Bakr will be in the Garden; 'Umar will be in the Garden; 'Uthman will be in the Garden;
'Ali will be in the Garden; Talhah will be in the Garden; al-Zubair will be in the Garden;
'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Auf will be in the Garden; Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas will be in the Garden;
Sa'id b. Zaid will be in the Garden; Abu 'Ubaidah b. al-Jarrah will be in the
- Related by Ishaq b. Rahawaih and al-Baihaqi with a
sahih isnad as a statement of 'Umar. It is also collected by Ibn 'Adi and al-Dailami from
Ibn 'Umar as marfu', but in its isnad is 'Isa b. Abdullah, who is weak. However, it is
strengthened by another narration of Ibn 'Adi, and also supported by the hadith in the
Sunan that a man saw in a dream that Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was
weighed against Abu Bakr, and was found to be heavier; then Abu Bakr was weighed against
everyone else ...96
- Related by al-Hakim, al-Tabarani and others. It is also
related by al-Tirmidhi with the wording, "I am the House of Wisdom, and 'Ali is its
Door". Al-Daraqutni labelled the hadith as mudtarib, both in isnad and text;
al-Tirmidhi said it is gharib and munkar; al-Bukhari said that it has no sahih narration;
Ibn Ma'in said that it is a baseless lie. Similar dismissals of the hadith are reported
from Abu Zur'ah, Abu Hatim and Yahya b. Sa'd. Al-Hakim declared the original hadith as
sahih in isnad, but Ibn al- Jauzi regarded both versions as maudu', and al- Dhahabi agreed
with him. Several of the later scholars, including Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, Ibn Hajar
al-Makki and al-Suyuti declared it hasan due to its various routes of narration. Al-
'Ijlouni says, "... none of this devalues the consensus of the Adherents to the
Sunnah from the Companions, the Successors and those after them, that the best of the
Companions overall is Abu Bakr, followed by 'Umar ...", and quotes this view from Ibn
'Umar and 'Ali himself, as recorded in Sahih al-Bukhari.97
Al-Albani declares the hadith to be maudu'.98
- A da'if or maudu' hadith, as stated by Ahmad b. Hanbal,
Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, al-Bazzar and many others. Ibn Hazm states that not only is the isnad
unsound, but the hadith cannot be true for two further reasons: (i) the Companions were
not infallible, and hence made mistakes, so it would be wrong to say that following any of
them leads to guidance; (ii) the comparison with the stars is wrong, for not every star
guides one through every journey! There is a different, authentic comparison with the
stars given in Sahih Muslim: the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said,
"The stars are the custodians of the sky, so when the stars depart, there will come
to the sky what is promised for it (i.e. on the Day of Judgment). I am the custodian of my
Companions, so when I depart, there will come to my Companions what is promised for them
(i.e. great trials and tribulations). My Companions are the custodians for my Ummah, so
when my Companions depart, there will come to my Ummah what is promised for it (i.e.
schisms, spread of innovations, etc.)." (4:1961, Eng. trans. IV:1344)
- No isnad exists for this hadith: al-Subki (d. 756)
said, "It is not known to the scholars of Hadith, and I cannot find an isnad for it,
whether sahih, da'if, or maudu'." It, along with the previous one, is often used to
justify the following two extremes: (i) blind following of the views of men, with no
reference to the Qur'an and Sunnah; (ii) conveniently following whichever scholar holds
the easiest view, or that most agreeable to one's desires, again without reference to the
- Numerous narrations of this hadith are found in the
collections of Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim, Ahmad and others: they vary in
being sahih, hasan, or da'if, but the hadith is established. Among those who have
authenticated this hadith are al-Tirmidhi, al- Hakim, al-Shatibi, Ibn Taimiyyah, Ibn
al-Qayyim, al-Dhahabi, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Hajar and al-'Iraqi. Most narrations mention the
splitting-up of the Jews and the Christians into seventy-one or seventy-two sects, all
being in the Fire except one, prior to mention of the Muslims dividing even more. In some
of the narrations, the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) describes the
Saved Sect variously as "the Jama'ah (community, congregation, main body)",
"the largest body (al-sawad al-a'zam)" and "that which follows what I and
my Companions are upon." The hadith does not mean that the majority of Muslims will
be in the Hellfire, for most of them ("the masses") are not involved in
intentional, divisive innovation; further, mention of the Fire does not necessarily imply
that the seventy-two sects will remain there forever, or that those sects are
- Although the Mahdi is not mentioned explicitly in the
collections of al-Bukhari and Muslim, numerous sahih ahadith, which are mutawatir in
meaning, speak of the coming of the Mahdi, a man named Muhammad b. 'Abdullah and a
descendant of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) through Fatimah, who
will be the Leader (Imam, Khalifah) of the Muslims, rule for seven years and fill the
world with justice and equity after it had been filled with tyranny and oppression. He
will also fight the Dajjal along with Jesus son of Mary. The author, in his The Concept of
the Mahdi among the Ahl al-Sunnah, has named 37 scholars who collected ahadith about the
Mahdi with their own isnads and 69 later scholars who wrote in support of the concept,
compared to 8 scholars who rejected the idea. The ahadith prophesying the Dajjal (False
Christ), a one-eyed man who will have miraculous powers and will be followed by the Jews,
and the return of Jesus Christ son of Mary (peace be upon them), who will descend in
Damascus and pray behind the Mahdi, kill the Dajjal at the gate of Lod in Palestine, break
the Cross, kill the Pig, marry and have children and live for forty years before dying a
natural death, are mutawatir in meaning. They have been collected by al-Bukhari and
Muslim, as well as other traditionists.
- Mutawatir in meaning, and collected by al- Bukhari,
Muslim and others.
- Mutawatir in meaning, and collected by al- Bukhari,
Muslim and others. Mention of the inadmissibility of intercession on the Day of Judgment
in the Qur'an, e.g. 2:48 2:123, must be understood in the light of other verses, e.g.
20:109 and sahih ahadith. The reward of seeing Allah for the believers is referred to in
the Qur'an, e.g. 75:22-23 and 83:15. These ahadith and those of the previous two
categories were generally rejected by the classical Mu'tazilah (Rationalists), as well by
those influenced by them today, on one or more of the following bases: (i) they contradict
the Qur'an (in their view); (ii) they contradict Reason (in their view), and (iii) they
are ahad, not mutawatir, and hence not acceptable in matters of belief (a flawed
argument). Hence, the scholars who wrote the 'aqidah (creed) of the Ahl al-Sunnah included
these concepts in it, to confirm their denial of the wrong ideas of the Mu'tazilah. Other
authentic ahadith rejected by the Mu'tazilah are many, and include those describing the
Prophet's Mi'raj (ascension to the heavens), which are again mutawatir in meaning.
- The hadith with this wording is da'if, but its meaning
is contained in the hadith of Ibn Majah and al-Nasa'i that a man came to the Prophet (may
Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said, "O Messenger of Allah! I intend to go
on a (military) expedition, but I have come to ask your advice." He said, "Is
your mother alive?" He said, "Yes." He said, "Then stay with her, for
the Garden is under her feet." This latter hadith is declared to be sahih by
al-Hakim, al-Dhahabi and al-Mundhiri.99
- A sahih hadith, collected by al-Bukhari, Muslim and
- This hadith has many chains of narration on the
authority of more than a dozen Companions, including twenty Successors apparently
reporting from Anas alone. They are collected by Ibn Majah, al-Baihaqi, al-Tabarani and
others, but all of them are da'if, according to Ahmad b. Hanbal, Ishaq b. Rahuwaih, Ibn
'Abd al-Barr, al- Bazzar and others, although some scholars authenticated a few of the
chains. Al-Baihaqi said that its text is mashhur while its isnad is da'if, while al-Hakim
and Ibn al-Salah regarded it as a prime example of a mashhur hadith which is not sahih.
However, it is regarded by later scholars of Hadith as having enough chains of narration
to be strengthened to the level of hasan or sahih, a view which is stated by al- Mizzi,
al-'Iraqi, Ibn Hajar, al-Suyuti and al- Albani.100
- This additional statement is found in a few of the
(weak) narrations of the previous hadith, and is declared as maudu' by Ibn Hibban, Ibn al-
Jauzi, al-Sakhawi and al-Albani.101
- Mentioned by al-Manjaniqi in his collection of ahadith
of older narrators reporting from younger ones, on the authority of al-Hasan al- Basri.
Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi said that it is maudu' as a narration from the Prophet (may Allah
bless him and grant him peace), but that it is a statement of al-Hasan al-Basri.102
- Related as marfu' by al-Baihaqi with a da'if isnad,
according to al-'Iraqi. Ibn Hajar said that it is actually a saying of Ibrahim b. Abi
'Ablah, a Successor.103
*NB: The scholars of Hadith agree that a da'if or maudu' hadith
must not be attributed to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), e.g. by
saying, "The Prophet said: ...", even if the meaning is considered to be correct
or if it is actually the saying of a Muslim scholar, for that would be a way of lying
about the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace).
- Ar. Sunnah: Way, Path, Tradition, Example. See An
Introduction to the Sunnah by Suhaib Hasan (Understanding Islam Series no. 5, published by
Al-Quran Society), for Qur'anic proofs of revelation besides the Qur'an, the importance of
the Sunnah, and a brief history of the collections of Hadith. See also Imam al- Shafi'i's
al-Risalah for the authoritative position of the Sunnah (Eng. trans., pp. 109- 116).
- related by Imam Muslim in the Introduction to his Sahih
- see Sahih Muslim (ed. M.F. 'Abdul Baqi, 5 vols., Cairo, 1374/1955), 1:15 & Sahih
Muslim bi Sharh an-Nawawi (18 vols. in 6, Cairo, 1349), 1:87. The existing English
translation of Sahih Muslim, by Abdul Hamid Siddiqi, does not contain this extremely
- Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi, Al-Jarh wa l-Ta'dil (8 vols.,
Hyderabad, 1360-1373), 1:20.
- Sahih Muslim, 1:15. See Suhaib Hasan, Criticism of
Hadith among Muslims with reference to Sunan Ibn Maja (Ta Ha publishers / Al-Quran
Society, London, 1407/1986), pp. 15-17 for discussion of this statement of Ibn Sirin.
- Remarks like these are exceptions from the basic Islamic
prohibition of backbiting (ghibah) another Muslim, even if the statement is true. Such
exceptions are allowed, even obligatory in some cases, where general benefit to the Muslim
public is at stake, such as knowing which ahadith are authentic. See e.g. Riyad al-
Salihin of al-Nawawi, Chapter on Backbiting, for the justification for certain types of
backbiting from the Qur'an and Sunnah.
- Muhammad Adib Salih, Lamahat fi Usul al-Hadith (2nd ed.,
al-Maktab al-Islami, Beirut, 1389), p. 143.
- Tahir b. Ahmad al-Jaza'iri, Taujih al-Nazar ila Usul
al-Nazar (Maktaba 'Ilmiyyah, Madinah, N.D.), p. 68.
- Muhammad b. 'Abdullah al-Hakim, Ma'rifah 'Ulum al-Hadith
(ed. Mu'azzam Husain, Cairo, 1937), p. 17.
- Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti, Tadrib al-Rawi (ed. A.A. Latif,
1st ed., Cairo, 1379/1959), 1:197.
- Al-Dhahabi, Talkhis al-Mustadrak (printed with
Mustadrak al-Hakim, 4 vols., Hyderabad), 3:176.
- Abu 'l-Fida' 'Imad al-Din Ibn Kathir, Tafsir al-Qur'an
al-Azim (4 vols., Cairo, N.D.), 1:80.
- Yusuf b. 'Abdullah Ibn 'Abdul Barr, Tajrid al- Tamhid
lima fi l-Muwatta' min al-Asanid (Cairo, 1350), 1:2.
- al-Suyuti, 1:198.
- For the discussion in detail, see al-Shafi'i,
al-Risalah (ed. Ahmad Shakir, Cairo, 1358/1940, pp. 461-470; English translation: M.
Khadduri, 2nd ed., Islamic Texts Society, Cambridge, 1987, pp. 279-284, where the mursal
hadith has been translated as "interrupted tradition").
- al-Suyuti, 1:199; Muhammad b. Mustafa al- Ghadamsi,
Al-Mursal min al-Hadith (Darif Ltd., London, N.D.), p.71.
- Ibn al-Qayyim, I'lam al-Muwaqqi'in (2nd ed., 4 vols. in
2, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, 1397/1977), 1:31.
- Ibn Hazm, Al-Ihkam fi Usul al-Ahkam (Matba'ah
al-Sa'adah, Cairo, 1345), 2:135.
- Al-Hazimi, Shurut al-A'immah al-Khamsah (ed. M.Z.
al-Kauthari, Cairo, N.D.), p. 45.
- According to the different interpretations of this
verse, "they" here could refer to those who stay behind, or those who go forth.
- al-Hakim, p. 26.
- Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Al-Kifayah fi 'Ilm al- Riwayah
(Hyderabad, 1357), p. 387.
- ibid., pp. 411-413.
- Zain al-Din al-'Iraqi, Al-Taqyid wa 'l-Idah Sharh
Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah (al-Maktabah al- Salafiyyahh, Madinah, 1389/1969), p. 72
- Ibn Taymiyyah, Minhaj al-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah fi Naqd
Kalam al-Shi'ah wa 'l-Qadariyyah (al- Maktabah al-Amiriyyah, Bulaq, 1322), 4:117.
- Al-Dhahabi, Al-Muqizah (Maktab al-Matbu'at al-
Islamiyyah, Halab, 1405), p. 40.
- al-Jaza'iri, p. 33.
- Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, Sharh Nukhbah al-Fikr (ed. M.
'Aud & M.G. Sabbagh, Damascus, 1410/1990), pp. 8-9.
- al-Jaza'iri, p. 49; Muhammad b. Isma'il al- Amir
al-San'ani, Taudih al-Afkar (2 vols. ed. M.M. 'Abdul Hamid, Cairo, 1366), 2:405.
- al-San'ani, 2:409.
- al-Hakim, pp. 96-102.
- al-San'ani, 2:455.
- al-'Iraqi, p. 268.
- al-San'ani, 2:406.
- al-'Iraqi, p. 96.
- Ibn Hajar, Tabaqat al-Mudallisin (Cairo, 1322), p. 7f.
- al-'Iraqi, p. 98.
- al-Hakim, pp. 30-34.
- ibid., p. 119.
- Ibn Kathir, Ikhtisar 'Ulum al-Hadith (ed. Ahmad Shakir,
2nd imp., Cairo, 1951), p. 57.
- al-Suyuti, 1:235; M. A. Salih, p. 260.
- al-San'ani, 2:3.
- ibid., 2:6.
- al-Khatib, p. 431.
- Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, 4:349.
- Ibn Kathir, Ikhtisar, p. 62.
- al-Suyuti, 1:248.
- al-Hakim, p. 39.
- al-'Iraqi, p. 129f.
- al-Suyuti, 1:274.
- Ibn Kathir, Ikhtisar, p. 72.
- Ibn 'Abdul Barr, Al-Tamhid, 3:32, as quoted by Luqman
al-Salafi, Ihtimam al-Muhaddithin bi Naqd al-Hadith, p. 381f.
- Ibn Kathir, Ikhtisar, p. 88.
- ibid., p. 87.
- Shams al-Din Muhammad b. 'Abd al-Rahman al- Sakhawi,
Fath al-Mughith Sharh Alfiyyah al- Hadith li 'l-'Iraqi (Lucknow, N.D.), 1:278.
- 'Uthman b. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Dimashqi Ibn al- Salah,
'Ulum al-Hadith (commonly known as Muqaddimah, ed. al-Tabbakh, Halab, 1350), p. 116.
- 'Ali b. 'Abdullah b. Ja'far Ibn al-Madini, Kitab
al-'Ilal, p. 58. Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani mentions that the Imams of Hadith have agreed that
al-Hasan al-Basri did not hear a single word from 'Ali.
- Sahih Muslim, 4:2149 (English transl., IV:1462, Sharh
- Ibn Taimiyyah, Majmu' Fatawa (37 vols., ed. 'Abd
al-Rahman b. Qasim & his son Muhammad, Riyad, 1398), 18:18f. Ibn Taimiyyah mentions
that Imam Muslim's authentication of this hadith is supported by Abu Bakr al-Anbari &
Ibn al- Jauzi, whereas al-Baihaqi supports those who disparaged it. Al-Albani says that it
was Ibn al-Madini who criticised it, whereas Ibn Ma'in did not (the latter was known to be
very strict, both of them were shaikhs of al-Bukhari). He further says that the hadith is
sahih, and does not contradict the Qur'an, contrary to the probable view of the scholars
who criticised the hadith, since what is mentioned in the Qur'an is the creation of the
heavens and the earth in six days, each of which may be like a thousand years, whereas the
hadith refers to the creation of the earth only, in days which are shorter than those
referred to in the Qur'an (Silsilah al-Ahadith as-Sahihah, no. 1833).
- al-Dhahabi, p. 27.
- al-Shafi'i, p. 370f (Eng. trans., pp. 239- 240).
- al-Dhahabi, p. 24.
- al-Nawawi, Muqaddimah, p. 14.
- al-Tibi, al-Husain b. 'Abdullah, al-Khulasah fi Usul
al-Hadith (ed. Subhi al-Samarra'i, Baghdad, 1391), p. 36.
- ibid., p. 38.
- al-Nawawi, Muqaddimah, p. 43.
- al-Dhahabi, p. 26.
- ibid., pp. 32-33.
- al-Albani, Silsilah al-Ahadith al-Sahihah, no. 62.
- al-Jaza'iri, p. 149.
- al-Sakhawi, 1:99.
- al-Dhahabi, pp. 33-34.
- ibid., p. 36.
- al-Sakhawi, 1:264.
- ibid., 1:275.
- al-Nawawi, Taqrib, 1:275.
- see Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Manar al-Munif fi 'l- Sahih wa
'l-Da'if (ed. A.F. Abu Ghuddah, Lahore, 1402/1982), pp. 102-105 for a fuller discussion.
Ibn al-Qayyim mentions more than ten clear indications of the forgery of the document,
which the Jews repeatedly attempted to use to deceive the Muslims over the centuries, but
each time a scholar of Hadith intervened to point out the forgery - such incidents
occurred with Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310), al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. 463) and Ibn
Taimiyyah (d. 728), who spat on the document as it was unfolded from beneath its silken
- Suhaib Hasan, Criticism of Hadith, pp. 35-44.
- The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)
allowed such narrations, but they are not to be confirmed nor denied, except for what is
confirmed or denied by the Qur'an and Sunnah. See e.g. An Introduction to the Principles
of Tafseer of Ibn Taimiyyah (trans. M.A.H. Ansari, Al-Hidaayah, Birmingham, 1414/1993),
- ibid., p. 156.
- see Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah.
- Fatawa Ibn Taimiyyah, 6:379-382.
- Isma'il b. Muhammad al-'Ijlouni, Kashf al- Khafa' (2
vols. in 1, Cairo/Aleppo, N.D.), no. 2016.
- Al-Albani, Silsilah al-Ahadith al-Da'ifah, no. 282.
- Kashf al-Khafa', no. 2256.
- Sahih al-Jami' al-Saghir, no. 2163; Silsilah al-Ahadith
al-Sahihah, no. 1691.
- Kashf al-Khafa', no. 2532; Al-Da'ifah, no. 66.
- Al-Da'ifah, no. 58.
- Kashf al-Khafa', no. 1102; Al-Da'ifah, no. 36.
- Al-Sahihah, no. 1761.
- Kashf al-Khafa', no. 2130.
- Kashf al-Khafa', no. 618.
- Da'if al-Jami' al-Saghir, nos. 1410, 1416.
- Kashf al-Khafa', no. 1078; Al-Da'ifah, no. 593.
- Kashf al-Khafa', no. 1665; Sahih al-Jami' al- Saghir,
- Al-Da'ifah, no. 416; Da'if al-Jami' al- Saghir, nos.
- Kashf al-Khafa', no. 2276.
- Kashf al-Khafa', no.