57. Hadiid

Syed Abu-Ala' Maududi's Chapter Introductions to the Quran


The Sura takes its title from the sentence Wa anzalna' l-hadida of verse 25.

Period of Revelation

This is unanimously a Madani Sura and a study of its subject matter shows that it was probably sent down some time during the interval between the Battle of Uhud and the Truce of Hudaibiyah. This was the time when the tiny Islamic State of Madinah had been hemmed in by the disbelievers and the handful of the ill equipped Muslims were entrenched against the com bined power of entire Arabia. In this state Islam not only stood in need of the sacrifice of Life from its followers but it also needed monetary help and assistance. In this Sura a forceful appeal has been made for the same. This view is further strengthened by verse 10 in which Allah has addressed the believers to the effect "Those of you who would spend and fight after the victory can never be equal to those who have spent and fought before the victory." And the same is supported by the traditions that Ibn Marduyah has related on the authority of Hadrat Anas. In respect of the verse Alam ya'n-i lilladhina aamanu an takhsha'a qulubu- hum li-dhikrillah-i he says that 17 years after the commencement of the revelation of the Qur'an this verse was sent down to arouse the believers to action. Reckoned thus the period of the revelation of this Sura falls between the 4th and the 5th year after the hijra.

Theme and Subject Matter

The theme of this Sura is to exhort the Muslims to spend in the cause of Allah. At the most critical juncture of the history of Islam when it was engaged in a life and death struggle against Arab paganism this Sura was revealed to persuade the Muslim's to make monetary sacrifices in particular and to make them realize that Islam did not merely consist in verbal affirmation and some outward practices but its essence and spirit is sincerity towards Allah and His Religion. The faith of the one who was devoid of this spirit and who regarded his own self and wealth as dearer to himself than Allah and His Religion was hollow and therefore of little worth in the sight of Allah. For this object first the attributes of Allah Almi- ghty have been mentioned so that the listeners may fully realize as to Who is addressing them. Then the follow- ing themes have been expressed in sequenee (1)The inevitable demand of the Faith is that one should not shirkspending one's wealth for the sake of Allah. This would not only be contrary to the Faith but also wrong realistically. For the wealth indeed belongs to Allah on which man has been given proprietary rights only as His vicegerent. Yesterday this wealth was in other people's possessiont today it is with one particular man and tomorrow it will pass into some one else's hand. Ultimately it will go back to Allah Who is the inheritor of everything in the universe. Only that much of this wealth will be of any use to a man which he spends in the cause of Allah during the period it is in his possession. (2) Although making sacrifices for the sake of Allah is commendable in any case the true worth of these sacrifices is determined by the nature of the occasion. There is an occasion when the power of paganism is overwhelming and there is a danger that it might subdue and overcome Islam completely; there is another occasion when Islam is in a stronger position in its struggle gainst un-Islam and the believers are attaining victories. Both these states are not equal as regards their respective importance. Therefore the sacrifices that are made in these different states would also not be equal. Those who sacrifice their lives and expend their wealth to further promote the cause of Islam when it is already strong cannot attain to the rank of those who struggled with their lives and their wealth to promote and uphold the cause of Islam when it was weak. (3)Whatever is spent for the cause of the Truth is a loan on Allah and Allah will not only return it increasing it manifold but will also give from Himself the best reward for it. (4)In the Hereafter the Light shall be bestowed only on those believers who would have spent their wealth in the cause of Allah. As for the hypocrites who watched and served only their own interests in the world and who least bothered whether the Truth or falsehood prevailed will be segregated from the believers in the Hereafter although they might have lived in close association with them in the world. They will be deprived of the Light and they will be counted among the disbelievers. (5)The Muslims should not behave like those followers of the earlier Books whose lives have been. spent in the worship of the world and whose hearts have become hardened due to negligence with the passage of time. He cannot be a believer whose heart does not melt at the remembrance of Allah and does not bow to the Truth sent down by Him. (6)The sincere upholders of the Truth and the true witnesses of the Faith in the sight of Allah are only those believers who spend their wealth in His way sincerely without any desire of show. (7)The life of this world is only a short lived spring and a means of pride and show. Its sports and pastimes its adornments and decorations its pride of place its wealth and possessions for which the people try to vie with one another are transient. Its likeness is of the crop which flourishes and blooms then turns pale and then finally is reduced to cha

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