||The Holy Prophet arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish
about the placing of the Black Stone in the Kaaba.
||The first revelation in the cave at Mt. Hira. The Holy
Prophet is commissioned as the Messenger of God.
||Declaration at Mt. Sara inviting the general public to
||Invitation to the Hashimites to accept Islam.
||Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of
Muslims leaves for Abyssinia.
||Second Hijrah to Abysinnia.
||Social boycott of the Hashimites and the Holy Prophet by
the Quraish. The Hashimites are shut up in a glen outside Makkah.
||Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Hadrat
Khadija. Year of sorrow.
||Journey to Taif. Ascension to the heavens.
||First pledge at Aqaba.
||Second pledge at Aqaba. The Holy Prophet and the Muslims
migrate to Yathrib.
||Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from
||Battle of Uhud. Massacre of 70 Muslims at Bir Mauna.
Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Madina. Second expedition of Badr.
||Expedition of Banu Mustaliq.
||Battle of the Trench. Expulsion of Banu Quraiza Jews.
||Truce of Hudaibiya. Expedition to Khyber. The Holy Prophet
addresses letters to various heads of states.
||The Holy Prophet performs the pilgrimage at Makkah.
Expedition to Muta (Romans).
||Conquest of Makkah. Battles of Hunsin, Auras, and Taif.
||Expedition to Tabuk. Year of Deputations.
||Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah.
||Death of the Holy Prophet. Election of Hadrat Abu Bakr as
the Caliph. Usamah leads expedition to Syria. Battles of Zu Qissa and Abraq.
Battles of Buzakha, Zafar and Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and
Musailima, the Liar.
||Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Mahrah Yemen, and Hadramaut.
Raids in Iraq. Battles of Kazima, Mazar, Walaja, Ulleis, Hirah, Anbar, Ein
at tamr, Daumatul Jandal and Firaz.
||Battles of Basra, Damascus and Ajnadin. Death of Hadrat Abu
Bakr. Hadrat Umar Farooq becomes the Caliph. Battles of Namaraq and Saqatia.
||Battle of Bridge. Battle of Buwaib. Conquest of Damascus.
Battle of Fahl.
||Battle of Yermuk. Battle of Qadsiyia. Conquest of Madain.
||Conquest of Syria. Fall of Jerusalem. Battle of Jalula.
||Conquest of Jazirah.
||Conquest of Khuizistan. Advance into Egypt.
||Capture of the post of Caesaria in Syria. Conquest of
Shustar and Jande Sabur in Persia. Battle of Babylon in Egypt.
||Battle of Nihawand. Conquest Of Alexandria in Egypt.
||Battle of Rayy in Persia. Conquest of Egypt. Foundation of
||Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Russia).
||Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and
Kharan.Martyrdom of Hadrat Umar. Hadrat Othman becomes the Caliph.
||Campaigns in Fats.
||Campaigns in Khurasan, Armeain and Asia Minor.
||Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of
||Campaigns against the Byzantines.
||Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines.
||Discontentment and disaffection against the rule of Hadrat
||Martyrdom of Hadrat Othman. Hadrat Ali becomes the Caliph.
Battle of the Camel.
||Hadrat Ali shifts the capital from Madina to Kufa. Battle
of Siffin. Arbitration proceedings at Daumaut ul Jandal.
||Battle of Nahrawan.
||Conquest of Egypt by Mu'awiyah.
||Hadrat Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Mu'awiyah.
Mu'awiyah declares himself as the Caliph at Damascus.
||Martyrdom of Hadrat Ali. Accession of Hadrat Hasan and his
abdication. Mu'awiyah becomes the sole Caliph.
||Raid of Sicily.
||Advance in North Africa. Uqba b Nafe founds the town of
Qairowan in Tunisia. Conquest of Kabul.
||Capture of the island of Rhodes. Campaigns in Khurasan.
||The Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state.
||Occupation of Sarnarkand and Tirmiz. Siege of
||Death of Muawiyah. Accession of Yazid. Tragedy of Kerbala
and martyrdom of Hadrat Hussain.
||In North Africa Uqba b Nafe marches to the Atlantic, is
ambushed and killed at Biskra. The Muslims evacuate Qairowan and withdraw to
||Death of Yazid. Accession of Mu'awiyah II.
||Abdullah b Zubair declares himself aS the Caliph at'Makkah.
Marwan I becomes the Caliph' at Damascus. Battle of Marj Rahat.
||Death of Marwan I. Abdul Malik becomes the Caliph at
Damascus. Battle of Ain ul Wada.
||Mukhtar declares himself as the Caliph at Kufa.
||Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abdullah b
Zubair. Mukhtar killed.
||Battle of Deir ul Jaliq. Kufa falls to Abdul Malik.
||The fall of Makkah. Death of Abdullah b Zubair. Abdul Malik
becomes the sole Caliph.
||Khawarij revolts in Jazira and Ahwaz. Battle of the Karun.
Campaigns against Kahina in North Africa. The' Muslims once again withdraw
to Barqa. The Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish.
||The Aghlabid rule is established in North Africa.
||Downfall of the Barmakids. Execution of Jafar Barmki.
||Campaigns against the Byzantines. Capture of the islands of
Rhodes and Cypress.
||Death of Harun ur Rashid. Accession of Amin.
||Civil war between Amin and Mamun. Amin killed and Mamun
becomes the Caliph.
||Shia revolt under Ibn Tuba Tabs.
||Shia revolt in Makkah; Harsama quells the revolt. In Spain
the Umayyads capture the island of Corsica.
||The Umayyads of Spain capture the islands of Izira,
Majorica, and Sardinia.
||Mamun comes to Baghdad.
||Tahir establishes the rule of the Tahirids in Khurasan.
||Death of Al Hakam in Spain; accession of Abdul Rahman. II.
||Death of Tahir in Khurasan. Accession of Talha and his
deposition. Accession of Abdullah b Tahir.
||Mamun declares the Mutazila creed as the state religion.
||Death of Mamun. Accession of Mutasim.
||Mutasim shifts the capital to Samarra.
||Revolt of the Jats.
||Revolt of Babek in Azarbaijan suppressed.
||Revolt of Maziar in Tabaristan. The Muslims occupy South
Italy. Capture of the city of Messina in Sicily.
||Death of Mutasim, accession of Wasiq.
||Revolts of the Arabs.
||Death of Wasiq, accession of Mutawakkil.
||Mutawakkil restores orthodoxy.
||Death of the Tahirid ruler Abdullah b Tahir; accession of
||Death of Abdur Rahman II of Spain;. accession of Muhammad
||Umar b Abdul Aziz founds the Habbarid rule in Sind.
||Mutawakkil founds the town of Jafariya.
||Ahmad founds the Samanid rule in Transoxiana.
||Murder of the Abbasid Caliph Mutawakkil; accession of
||Muntasir poisoned to death; accession of Mutasin.
||Zaidi state established in Tabaristan by Hasan b Zaid.
||Mutasim flies from Samarra, his depostion and accession of
||Yaqub b Layth founds the Saffarid rule in Sistan.
||Ahmad b Tulun founds the Tulunid rule in Egypt.
||The Abbasid Caliph Mutaaz forced to abdicate, his death and
accession of Muhtadi.
||Turks revolt against Muhtadi, his death and accession of
||Tahirid rule extinguished.
||Zanj revolt in South Iraq. Death of the Samanid ruler
Ahmad, accession of Nasr.
||Death of Yaqubb Layth in Sistan, accession of Amr b Layth.
||Death of Ahmad b Tulun in Egypt, accession of Khamar-
||Death of Muhammad I the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession
of Munzir. Death of Abdullah b Umar the Habbari ruler of Sind.
||Death of Munzir the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of
||The Qarmatian state established at Bahrain.
||Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr, accession of Ismail.
||The Rustamids become the vassals of Spain.
||Death of the Tulunid ruler Khamarwiyiah; accession of Abul
||Assassination of Abul Asakir Jaish; accession of Abu Musa
||Qarmatians sack Basra.
||Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; death of the Saffarid
||Assassination of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Said; accession of
||Abdullah b Hamdan founds the Hamdanid rule in Mosul and
Jazira. End of the Tulunid rule in Egypt.
||Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; accession of Muqtadir.
||End of the Saffarid rule, annexation of their territories
by the Samanids.
||Ubaidullah overthrows the Aghlablds and founds the Fatimid
rule in North Africa.
||Death of the Umayyad Amir Abdullah in Spain, accession of
Abdur Rahman III.
||Assassination of the Samanid ruler Ahmad II, accession of
||Mardawij b Ziyar founds the Ziyarid rule in Tabaristan.
||Qarmatians sack Makkah and carry away the Black Stone from
the Holy Kaaba. In Spain, Abdur Rahman III declares himself as the Caliph.
||Deposition and restoration of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir.
Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Tahir; accession of Abu Mansur.
||Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir; accession of Al Qahir.
||Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qahir; accession of Ar
Radi. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Ubaidullah ; accession of Al Qaim.
||Assassination of the Ziyarid ruler Mardawij; accession of
Washimgir. Death of Hamdanid ruler Abdullah b Hamdan accession of Nasir ud
||By coup Ibn Raiq becomes the Amir ul Umara.
||By another coup power at Baghdad is captured by Bajkam.
||Death of the Abbasid Caliph Ar Radi, accession of Muttaqi.
||Assassination of Bajkam, capture of power by Kurtakin.
||Ibn Raiq recaptures power.
||Al Baeidi captures power. The Abbasid Caliph Muttaqi is
forced to seek refuge with the Hamdanids. Sail ud Daula captures power at
Baghdad and the Caliph returns to' Baghdad. Power is captured by Tuzun and
Sail ud Daula retires' to Mosul. Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr II,
accession of Nuh.
||Muttaqi is blinded and deposed, accession of Mustakafi.
||Death of Tuzun. Shirzad becomes Amir ul Umra. The Buwayhids
capture power. Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Mustakafi.
||Death of the Fatimid Caliph A1 Qaim. accession of Mansur.
Death of the Ikhshid ruler Muhammad b Tughj, accession of Abul' Qasim Ungur.
||The Qarnaatiana restore the Black Stone to the Holy Kaaba.
||Death of the Sasanid ruler Nuh, accession of Abdul Malik.
||Death of the Samanid ruler Abdul Malik, accession of Manauf.
Alptgin founds the rule of the Ghazanavids. Death of the Umayyad Caliph
Abdul Rahman III in Spain; accession of Hakam. Death of the Ikhshid ruler
Ungur accession of Abul Hasan Ali.
||Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Mansur; accession of Hasan
Azam. Assassination of the Ikhshid ruler Abul Hasan Ali; power captured by
||Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Muiz ud Daula, accession of
Bakhtiar. Death of the Hamdanid ruler Sail ud Daula.
||Byzantines occupy Aleppo. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Malik
Kafur; accession of Abul Fawaris.
||The Fatimids conquer Egypt.
||Buluggin b Ziri founds the rule of the Zirids Algeria.
||Shia Sunni disturbances in Baghdad; power captured in
Baghdad by the Turkish General Subuktgin.
||Abdication of the Abbasid Caliph Al Muttih; accession of At
||Death of the Turk General Subuktgin. Death of the Fatimid
Caliph Al Muizz.
||The Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula recaptures power with the
help of his cousin Azud ud Daula. Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur,
accession of Nuh II. In Spain death of the Umayyad Caliph Hakam, accession
of Hisham II.
||Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula, power captured
by Azud ud Daula. The Hamdanids overthrown by the Buwayhids.
||Subkutgin becomes the Amir of Ghazni.
||End of the Qarmatian rule at Bahrain.
||Death of the- Buwayhid Sultan Azud ud Daula; accession of
Samsara ud Daula.
||Death of the Zirid ruler Buluggin, accession of Mansur.
||The Buwyhid Sultan Samsara ud Daula overthrown by Sharaf ud
||Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Sharaf ud Daula, accession of
Baha ud Daula.
||Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph At Taii, accession of Al
||Death of the Zirid ruler Mansur, accession of Nasir ud
||Death of the Samanid ruler Nuh II, accession of Mansur II.
||Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur II, accession of Abdul
Malik II. Mahmud becomes the Amir of Ghazni.
||End of the Samanids.
||Mahmud Ghazanavi defeats the Hindu Shahis.
||Mahmud captures Bhatiya.
||Mahmud captures Multan and Ghur.
||Mahmud defeats the Rajput confederacy.
||Abdication of Hisham II in Spain. accession of Muhammad.
||In Spain Muhammad is overthrown by Sulaiman.
||In Spain power is captured by Bani Hamud. Death of the
Buwayhid Baha ud Daula, accession of Sultan ud Daula.
||Death of the Zirrid ruler Nasir ud Daula Badis; accession
of Al Muizz.
||In Spain power is captured by Abdul Rahman IV.
||Conquest of the Punjab by Mahmud Ghazanavi.
||The Buwayhid Sultan ud Daula is Overthrown by Musharaf ud
Daula, Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Hakim, accession of Al Zahir.
||In Spain assassination of Abdul Rahman IV, accession of
||Death of the Buwayhid Mushgraf ud Daula, accession of Jalal
||In Spain death of Mustaft, accession of Hisham III.
||Death of Mahmud Ghazanavi.
||In Spain deposition of Hisharn III, and end of the Umayyad
rule. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qadir, accession of Al Qaim.
||Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Zahir, accession of
Mustansir. Tughril Beg is crowned as the king of the Seljuks.
||Battle of Dandanqan, the Seljuks defeat the Ghazanavids.
Deposition of Masud the Ghazanavid Sultan, accession of Muhammad. Al
Moravids come to power in North Africa.
||The Ghazanavid Sultan Muhammad is overthrown by Maudud.
||Death of the Buwayhid Jalal ud Daula, accession of Abu
||Basasiri captures power in Baghdad.
||The Zirids in North Africa repudiate allegiance to the
Fatimid and transfer allegiance to-the Abbasids.
||Death of the Buwayhid Abu Kalijar, accession of Malik ur
||Yusuf b Tashfin comes to power .in the Maghrib.
||Tughril Beg overthrows the Buwayhids.
||Basasiri recaptures power in Baghdad, deposes Al Qaim and
offers allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph.
||Tughril Beg recaptures power in Baghdad, al Qaim is
restored as the Caliph.
||Ibrahim becomes the Sultan of Ghazni. Yusuf b Tashfin
founds the city of Marrakesh. The Zirids abandon their capital Ashir and
establish their capital at Bougie.
||Death of the Zirid ruler Al Muizz, accession of Tamin.
||Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg; accession of Alp
||Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantine emperor taken captive by
||Death of Alp Arsalan, accession of Malik Shah.
||Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qaim, accession of Al
||The A1 Moravids conquer Algeria.
||Battle of Zallakha. The Al Moravids defeat the Christians
in Spain. Death of the Rum Sejuk Sultan Sulaiman, accession of Kilij Arsalan.
||The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim
||Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah, accession of Mahmud.
||Death of Mahmud; accession of Barkiaruk. Death of the
Abbasid Caliph Al Muqtadi, accession of Mustahzir.
||The first crusade.
||The crusaders capture Jerusalem.
||Death or the Fatimid Caliph Al Mustaali, accession of Al
||Death of the Seljuk Sultan Barkiaruk, accession Of
||Death of the Al Motavid Yusuf b Tashfin.
||Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arsalan, succession of
||Death of the Zirid ruler Tamin, accession of Yahya.
||Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah. accession of
Rukn ud Din Masud.
||Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad; accession of Mahmud
II. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustahzir, accession of Mustarshid. In Spain
the Christians capture Saragossa.
||Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Aamir, accession of Al
||Imad ud Din Zangi establishes the Zangi rule In Mosul.
||Death of the Khawarzam Shah Qutb ud Din Muhammad; accession
||Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mahmud II; accession of Tughril
||Assassination of the Abbasid Caliph Mustarshid; accession
of Al Rashid. Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg II, accession of Masud.
||Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Al Rashid, accession of Al
||Imad ud Din Zangi captures Edessa from the Christians,
||Death of Imad ud Din Zangi, accession of Nur ud Din Zangi.
||In the Maghrib Al Moravids overthrown by the Al Mohads
under Abul Mumin.
||End of the Zirid rule' in North Africa.
||Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Hafiz, accession of Al Zafar.
||Death of the Seljuk Sultan Masud, accession of Malik Shah
II. Hamadid rule extinguished in North Africa.
||Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah I1, accession of
||Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Zafar, accession of Al Faiz.
||Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Rukn ud Din Masid, accession
of Arsalan II.
||Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad II, accession of
||Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Mukta, accession of Al
Mustanjid. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Faiz, accession of Al Azzid.
||Death of the Seljuk Sulaiman, accession of Arsalan Shah.
||Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abul Mumin, accession of Abu
||Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustanjid, accession of Al
||Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Azzid. End of the Fatimids.
Salah ud Din founds the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt.
||Death of the Khawarzam Shah Arsalan, accession of Sultan
||The Khawarzam Shah Sultan Shah is overthrown by Tukush
||Salah ud Din annexes Syria.
||The Ghurids defeat the Guzz Turks and occupy Ghazni.
||Death of the Seljuk Sultan Arsalan Shah, accession of
Tughril Beg III.
||Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Mustazaii, accession of Al
Nasir. Shahab ud Din Ghuri captures Peshawar.
||Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abu Yaqub Yusuf, accession of
Abu Yusuf Yaqub.
||The Ghurids overthrow the Ghaznvaids in the Punjab.
||Salah ud Din wrests Jerusalem from the Christians, third
||Battle of Tarain between the Rajputs and the Ghurids.
||Death of Salah ud Din; accession of Al Aziz. Second
||Occupation of Delhi by the Muslims. End of the Seljuk rule.
||Death of the Khawarzam Shah Tukush Shah; accession of Ala
ud Din. Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub; accession of Muhammad
Nasir. Conquest of Northern India and Bengal by the Ghurids.
||Death of the Ghurid Sultan Ghias ud Din; accession of
||Shahab ud Din Ghuri defeated by the Ghuzz Turks.
||Death of Shahab ud Din Ghuri. Qutb ud Din Aibik crowned
king in Lahore.
||Assassination of the Ghurid Sultan MahmUd, accession of
Sam. Death of Qutb ud Din Aibak, accession of Aram Shah in India.
||End of the Ghurid rule, their territories annexed by the
Khawarzam Shahs. In India Aram Shah overthrown by Iltutmish.
||Battle of Al Uqab in Spain, end of the Al Mohad rule in
Spain. The Al Mohads suffer defeat by the Christians in Spain at the Al-Uqba.
The Al Mohad Sultan An Nasir escapes to Morocco where he dies soon after.
Accession of his son Yusuf who takes over title of Al Mustansir.
||In North Africa death of the Al Mohad ruler Al Nasir,
accession of Al Mustansir. The Banu Marin under their leader Abdul Haq
occupy the north eastern part of Morocco.
||The Banu Marin under their leader Abdul Haq occupy north
eastern part of Morocco. The Al Mohads suffer defeat by the Marinids at the
battle of Nakur. The Banu Marin defeat the Al Mobads at the battle of Nakur.
||The Marinids suffer defeat in the battle fought on the
banks of the Sibu river. Abdul Haq is killed and the Marinids evacuate
Morocco. In the battle of Sibu the Marinids suffer defeat; their leader
Abdul Haq is killed and they evacuate Morocco.
||Death of the Ayyubid ruler Al Adil, accession of Al Kamil.
The Marinids return to Morocco under their leader Othman and occupy Fez.
||Death of the Khawarzam Shah Ala ud Din, accession of Jalal
ud Din Mangbarni.
||Death of the Zangi ruler Nasir ud Din Mahmud, power
captured by Badr ud Din Lulu.
||Death of the Al Mohad ruler Muntasir, accession of Abdul
Wahid. Death of Yusuf Al Mustansir, accession of Abdul Wahid in Morocco.. In
Spain a brother of Yusuf declares his independence and assumes the title of
Al Adil. In Spain Abu Muhammad overthrows Al Adil. Al Adil escapes to
Morocco and overthrows Abdul Wahid.
||Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abdul Wahid, accession of
||Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Nasir, accession of Al
||Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abdullah Adil, accession of
Mustasim. Assassination of Al Adil, accession of his son Yahya who assumes
the throne under the name of Al Mustasim.
||Death of the Al Mohad ruler Mustasim, accession of Idris.
The Ayyubid Al Kamil restores Jerusalem to the Christians. Abu Muhammad dies
in Spain and is succeeded by Al Mamun. Al Mamun invades Morocco with
Christian help. Yahya is defeated and power is captured by Al Mamun. He
denies the Mahdiship of Ibn Tumarat.
||End of the Khawarzam Shah rule.
||Death of the Al Mohad ruler Idris, accession, of Abdul
Wahid II. Assassination of Al Mamun; accession of his son Ar-Rashid.
||Death of the Ayyubid ruler Al Kamil, accession of Al Adil.
||Death of Delhi Sultan Iltutmish. Accession of Rukn ud Din
||Accession of Razia Sultana as Delhi Sultan.
||Death of Ar-Rashid; accession of his son Abu Said.
||Death of Razia Sultana, accession of Bahram Shah.
||Death of Bahram Shah, accession of Ala ud Din Masud Shah as
Delhi Sultan. Death of the Al Mohad rules Abdul Wahid, accession of Abu
Hasan. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustansir, accession of Mustasim.
||Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abdul Walid II, accession of
||The Al Mohads defeat the Marinids at the battle of Abu
Bayash. The Marinids evacuate Morocco.
||The Muslims reconquer Jerusalem.
||Death of the Delhi Sultan Ala ud Din Masud Shah, accession
of Nasir ud Din Mahmud Shah.
||Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abul Hasan, accession of Omar
Murtaza. Abu Said attacks Tlemsen, but is ambushed and killed; accession of
his son Murtada.
||The Marinids return to Morocco, and occupy a greatar part
||The Mongols sack Baghdad. Death of the Abbasid Caliph
Mustasim. End of the Abbasid rule. Fall of Baghdad, end of the Abbasid
caliphate. The Mongol II-Khans under Halaku establish their rule in Iran and
Iraq with the capital at Maragah. Berek Khan the Muslim chief of the Golden
Horde protests against the treatment meted out to the Abbasid Caliph and
withdraw his Contingent from Baghdad.
||Abu Abdullah the Hafsid ruler declares himself as the
Caliph and assumes the name of Al Mustamir.
||Battle of Ayn Jalut in Syria. The Mongols are defeated by
the Mamluks of Egypt, and the spell of the invincibility of the Mongols is
broken. Baybars becomes the Mamluk Sultan.
||Death of Bahauddin Zikriya in Multan who is credited with
the introduction of the Suhrawardi Sufi order in the IndoPakistan
||Death of Halaku. Death of Fariduddin Ganj Shakkar the
Chishti saint of the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent.
||Death of Berek Khan the first ruler of the Golden Horde to
be converted to Islam. The eighth crusade. The crusaders invade Tunisia.
Failure of the crusade.
||Malik ul Salih establishes the first Muslim state of
Samudra Pasai in Indonesia. Murtada seeks the help of the Christians, and
the Spaniards invade Morocco. The Marinids drive away the Spaniards from
Morocco. Assassination of Murtada; accession of Abu Dabbas.
||Abu Dabbas is overthrown by the Marinida, End of the Al
Mohads. End of the rule of the Al Mohads in Morocco, the Marinids come to
power in Morocco under Abu Yaqub.
||Death of Mansa Wali the founder of the Muslim rule in M ali.
||Death of Muhammad I the founder of the state of Granada.
Yaghmurason invades Morocco but meets a reverse at the battle
||Death of Jalaluddin Rumi.
||Death of Nasiruddin Tusi. The Marinids wrest Sijilmasa from
the Zayenids. Ninth crusade under Edward I of England. The crusade ends in
fiasco and Edward returns to England.
||Death of Baybars.
||Battle of Hims.
||Death of Yaghmurasan. Accession of his son Othman.
||Tunisis splits in Tunis and Bougie.
||Death of Ghiasuddin Balban. Death of Abu Yusuf Yaqub.
Bughra Khan declares his independence in Bengal under the name of Nasiruddin.
||End of the slave dynasty Jalaluddin Khilji comes into
power. Othman embarks on a career of conquest and by 1290 C.E. most of the
Central Maghreb is conquered by the Zayanids.
||Alauddin Ghazan converted to Islam.
||Mongols invade Syria. The Marinids besiege Tlemsen the
capital of the Zayanids.
||In Bengal, Death of Ruknuddin the king of Bengal, succeeded
by brother Shamsuddin Firuz.
||In Granada, Death of Muhammad II; succession of Muhammad
||In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Ghazan, succession
of his brother Khudabanda Ul Jaytu. In Algeria, Death of Othman, succession
of his son Abu Zayan Muhammad.
||In the Khiljis empire, Alauddin Khilji conquers Rajputana.
||In the Chughills empire, Death of Dava, succession of his
||In the Marinids empire, Assassination of the Marinid Sultan
Abu Yaqub Yusuf; accession of Abu Thabit
||In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Kunjuk, power
captured by Taliku. In Algeria, Death of Abu Zayan Muhammad, succession of
his brother Abu Hamuw Musa. In the Marinids empire, Abu Thabit overthrown by
Abu Rabeah Sulaiman.
||In the Chughills empire, Assassination of Taliku, accession
of Kubak. In Granada, Muhammad III overthrown by his uncle Abul Juyush Nasr.
||In the Chughills empire, Kubak overthrown by his brother
Isan Buga. In the Marinids empire, Abu Rabeah Sulaiman overthrown by Abu
Said Othman. In the Khiljis empire, Alauddin conquers Deccan.
||In Tunisia, In Tunis Abul Baqa is overthrown by Al Lihiani.
||In the Mongols II Khans empire, Invasion of Syria, the
Mongols repulsed. In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Toktu, accession of
his nephew Uzbeg.
||In Kashmir, Rainchan an adventurer from Baltistan
overthrows Sinha Deva the Raja of Kashmir. Rainchan is converted to Islam
and adopts the name of Sadrud Din. In Granada, Abul Juyush overthrown by his
nephew Abul Wahid Ismail.
||In Tunisia, War between Bougie and Tunis, Lihani defeated
and killed. Abu Bakr becomes the ruler of Bougie and Tunis.
||In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Khudabanda Ul
Jaytu, succession of Abu Said. In the Khiljis empire, Death of Alauddin,
accession of Shahabuddin Umar, usurpation of power by Malik Kafur, a Hindu
||In the Khiljis empire, Assassination of Malik Kafur,
deposition of Shahabuddin Umar, accession of Qutbuddin Mubarak. In the
Chughills empire, Isan Buga overthrown by Kubak.
||In the Khiljis empire, Assassination of Qutbuddin Mubarak,
usurpation of power by Khusro Khan a Hindu convert. Khusro Khan overthrown
by Ghazi Malik. End of the rule of Khiljis. In Tunisia, Abu Bakr expelled
from Tunis by Abu Imran. In the Tughluqs empire, Ghazi Malik founds the rule
of the Tughluq dynasty.
||In the Chughills empire, Death of Kubak, succession of
Hebbishsi who is overthrown by Dava Temur.
||In the Chughills empire, Dava Temur overthrown by
Tarmashirin, who is converted to Islam. In Bengal, Death of Shamsuddin Firuz.
The kingdom divided into two parts. Ghiasuddin Bahadur became the ruler of
East Bengal with the capital at Sonargaon, Shahabuddin became the ruler of
West Bengal with the capital at Lakhnauti.
||In Bengal, Shahabuddin dies and is succeeded by his brother
||In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Ghazi Malik (Ghiasuddin
Tughluq); accession of his son Muhammad Tughluq. In Granada, Assassination
of Abul Wahid Ismail, succession of his son Muhammad IV. Assassination of
Muhammad IV. Accession of his brother Abul Hallaj Yusuf. In the Samudra
Pasai empire, Death of Malik al Tahir I, accession of Malik al Tahir II. In
Bengal, With the help of Ghiasuddin Tughluq, Nasiruddin over-throws.
Ghiasuddin Bahadur and himself become's the ruler of United Bengal.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Othman, succession of
Orkhan. Orkhan conquers Bursa and makes it his capital.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks capture the city of
||In the Tughluqs empire, Muhammad Tughluq shifts the capital
from Delhi to Daulatabad in Deccan.
||In the Chughills empire, Death of Tramashirin, succession
of Changshahi. Amir Hussain establishes the rule of the Jalayar dynasty at
Baghdad. In Tunisia, Abu Bakr overthrows Abu Imran and the state is again
united, under him. In Bengal, Muhammad b Tughluq reverses the policy of his
father and restores Ghiasuddin Bahadur to the throne of Sonargeon.
||In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Said Othman, sucession
of Abul Hasan. In Bengal, Annexation of Bengal by the Tughluqs.
||In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Abu Said, power
captured by Arpa Koun. In the Chughills empire, Assassination of Changshahi,
accession of Burun.
||In the Mongols II Khans empire, Arpa defeated and killed,
succeeded by Musa. Birth of Amir Temur. In the Jalayar empire, Death of Amir
Hussain, succession of Hasan Buzurg. In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks
annex the state of Karasi. In Bengal, The Tughluq Governor at Sonargeon
assassinated by armour bearer who captured power and declared his
independence assuming the name of Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah.
||In the Mongols II Khans empire, The rule of Musa
overthrown, Muhammad becomes the Sultan. In the Sarbadaran empire, On the
disintegration of the II-Khan rule, Abdur Razaq a military adventurer
establishes an independent principality in Khurasan with the capital at
Sabzwar. In the Muzaffarids empire, On the disintegration of the II Khan
rule Mubarazud Din Muhammad established the rule of the Muzaffarid dynasty.
In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks capture the city of Nicomedia. In
Algeria, Algeria is occupied by Marinids.
||In the Mongols II Khans empire, Muhammad overthrown,
succession of Sati Beg. Sati Beg marries Sulaiman who becomes the co-ruler.
||In Kashmir, Death of Sadrud Din, throne captured by a Hindu
Udyana Deva. In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Burun, accession of Isun
Temur. In Bengal, The Tughluq Governor at Lakhnauti-Qadr Khan assassinated
and power is captured by the army commander-in-chief who declares his
independence and assumes the title of Alauddin Ali Shah.
||In the Muzaffarids empire, The Muzaffarids conquer Kirman.
In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Isun Temur, accession of Muhammad.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Uzbeg, succession of
his son Tini Beg.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Tini Beg overthrown by his
brother Jani Beg.
||In the Chughills empire, Muhammad overthrown, power
captured by Kazan. In Bengal, Ilyas an officer of Alauddin murders his
patron and captures the throne of West Bengal.
||In the Mongols II Khans empire, Deposition of Sulaiman,
succession of Anusherwan.
||In the Samudra Pasai empire, Death of Malik al Tahir II,
accession of Tahir III. His rule lasted throughout the fourteenth century.
In Bengal, llyas captures East Bengal and under him Bengal is again united.
He establishes his capital at Gaur.
||In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Kazan, accession of
Hayan Kuli. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Bakr, succession of his son Fadal. In
Kashmir, Death of Udyana Deva, throne captured by Shah Mirza who assumed the
name of Shah Mir, and rounded the rule of Shah Mir dynasty.
||The Marinids capture Tunisia. In the Bahmanids empire,
Hasan Gangu declares his independence and establishes a state in Deccan with
the capital at Gulbarga.
||In Kashmir, Death of Shah Mir, accession of his son Jamsbed.
In Algeria, The Zayanids under Abu Said Othman recapture Algeria.
||In the Sarbadaran empire, Revolt against Abdur Razaq. Power
captured by Amir Masud. In Tunisia, Deposition of Fadal, succession of his
brother Abu Ishaq. In Kashmir, Jamshed overthrown by his step brother
Alauddin Ali Sher.
||In the Marinids empire, Death of Abul Hasan, succession of
Abu Inan. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Muhammad Tughluq accession of
Firuz Shah Tughluq.
||In Algeria, The Marinids again capture Algeria. Abu Said
Othman is taken captive and killed.
||End of the Mongol II Khan rule. In the Ottoman Turks
empire, The Turks acquire the fortress of Tympa on the European side of the
Hollespoint. In the Muzaffarids empire, The Muzaffarids conquer Shiraz and
establish their capital there.
||In the Muzaffarids empire, The Muzaffarids annex Isfahan.
In Granada, Assassination of Abu Hallaj Yusuf, succession of his son
||In the Jalayar empire, Death of Hasan Buzurg, succession of
his son Owaia.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Jani Beg, succession
||In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Hasan Gangu, accession of
his son Muhammad Shah. In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Mubarazuddin
Muhammad; accession of Shah Shuja. In the Marinids empire, Assassination of
Abu Inan, succession of Abu Bakr Said. In Bengal, Death of Ilyas, succession
of his son Sikandar Shah.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Orkhan, succession of
Murad. In the Muzaffarids empire, Shah Shuja deposed by his brother Shah
Mahmud. In Tunisia, Abul Abbas a nephew of Abu Ishaq revolts and establishes
his rule in Bougie. In Algeria, The Zayanids under Abu Hamuw II recapture
Algeria. In the Marinids empire, Abu Bakr Said overthrown by Abu Salim
Ibrahim. In Granada, Muhammad V loses the throne in palace revolution,
succeeded by Ismail.
||In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Shah Mahmud. Shah Shuja
recaptures power. In the Chughills empire, Power captured by Tughluq Temur.
In Granada, Ismail overthrown by his brother-in-law Abu Said.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Murad conquers a part of
Thrace and establishes his capital at Demolika in Thrace. In the Golden
Horde empire, Kulpa overthrown by his brother Nauroz. In the Marinids
empire, Abu Salim Ibrahim overthrown by Abu Umar. Abu Umar overthrown by Abu
||In the Golden Horde empire, State of anarchy. During 20
years as many as 14 rulers came to the throne and made their exit. In
Granada, Abu Said overthrown by Muhammad V who comes to rule for the second
time. In Kashmir, Death of Alauddin Ali Sher, succeeded by his brother
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks defeat the
Christians at the battle of Matiza, the Byzantine ruler becomes a vassal of
||In the Marinids empire, Assassination of Abu Zayyan,
succession of Abu Faris Abdul Aziz.
||Power captured by Amir Temur. End of the rule of the
Chughills. Amir Temur captures power in Transoxiana. In Tunisia, Death of
Abu Ishaq. Succession of his son Abu Baqa Khalid.
||In Tunisia, Abu Baqa overthrown by Abul Abbas under whom
the state is reunited. In the Sarbadaran empire, Death of Amir Masud,
succession of Muhammad Temur.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Invasion of Bulgaria,
Bulgarian territory upto the Balkans annexed by the Turks.
||In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Faris, succession of
||In the Marinids empire, Abu Muhammad overthrown by Abul
||In the Sarbadaran empire, Deposition of Muhammad Temur,
power captured by Shamsuddin. In the Jalayar empire, Death of Owais,
succession by his son Hussain.
||In Kashmir, Death of Shahabuddin, succeeded by his brother
||In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Shah, succeeded
by his son Mujahid.
||In the Bahmanids empire, Mujahid assassinated, throne
captured by his uncle Daud.
||Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Bairam Khawaja found
the independent principality of the Turkomans of the Black Sheep and
established his capital at Van in Armenia. In the Bahmanids empire,
Assassination of Daud; accession of Muhammad Khan.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Power is captured by Toktamish,
a prince of the White Horde of Siberia. In Amir Temur's empire, Amir Temur
crosses the Oxus and conquers Khurasan and Herat. Amir Temur invades Persia
and subjugates the Muzaffarids and Mazandaran.
||In Amir Temur's empire, Annexation of Seestan, capture of
||In Amir Temur's empire, Conquest of Astrabad, Mazandaran,
Rayy and Sultaniyah. In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Shah Shuja,
accession of his son Zainul Abdin. In the Marinids empire, Abul Abbas
overthrown by Mustansir. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of
Bairam Khawaja, succession of Qara Muhammad.
||In Amir Temur's empire, Annexation of Azarbaijan, Georgea
overrun. Subjugation of Gilan and Shirvan. Turkomans of the Black Sheep
defeated. In the Marinids empire, Death of Mustansir, succession of
||In the Marinids empire, Muhammad overthrown by Abul Abbas
who comes to power for the second time.
||In Algeria, Death of Abu Hamuw II, succession of Abu
Tashfin. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Firuz Shah Tughluq, succeeded by
his grandson Ghiasuddin Tughluq II.
||In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of the poet Hafiz Shirazi.
In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Ghiasuddin Tughluq II, accession: of Abu
Bakr Tughluq Shah. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Qara
Muhammad. succession of Qara Yusuf.
||In the Tughluqs empire, Abu Bakr overthrow by Nasiruddin
Tughluq. In Bengal, Death of Sikandar Shah, accession of his son Ghiasud. In
the Burji Mamluks empire, The rule of the Burji Mamluks rounded by Saifuddin
||In Amir Temur's empire, Annexation of Fars. In the
Muzaffarids empire, Annexation of the Muzaffarids by Amir Temur. In Granada,
Death of Muhammad V, succession of his son Abu Hallaj Yusuf II.
||In the Jalayar empire, Death of Hussain, succession of his
son Ahmad. In Granada, Death of Abu Hallaj ; succession of Muhammad VI.
||Amir Temur defeats Tiktomish, the ruler of the Golden
Horde. Capture of the Jalayar dominions by Amir Temur. In the Marinids
empire, Death of Abul Abbas; succession of Abu Faris II.
||Amir Temur defeats the Duke of Moscow. In the Tughluqs
empire, Death of Nasiruddin Tugluq, accession of Alauddin Sikandar Shah. In
Kashmir, Death of Qutbuddin. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Qara
Othman established the rule of the White Sheep Turkomans in Diyarbekr.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Amir Temur defeated Toktamish
and razes Serai to the ground. End of the rule of the Golden Horde.
Annexation of Iraq by Amir Temur. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Sikandar
Shah. Accession of Muhammad Shah.
||In the Amir Temur's empire, Destruction of Sarai, and of
the rule of the Golden Horde. In the Sarbadaran empire, Principality annexed
by Amir Temur.
||In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Khan.
||In the Amir Temur's empire, Campaign in India. In the
Marinids empire, Death of Abu Faris II. In the Tughluqs empire, Invasion of
Amir Timur, Mahmud Shah escapes from the capital. In Morocco, Death of the
Marinid Sultan Abu Faris II; succession of his son Abu Said Othman.
||In the Amir Temur's empire, Campaign in Iraq and Syria. In
the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Barquq, succession of his son
Nasiruddin in Faraj.
||In the Burji Mamluks empire, The Mamluks lost Syria which
was occupied by Amir Timur.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Timur Qutluq, the
ruler, installed by Amir Timur. accession of Shadi Beg.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Defeat of Bayazid at the
battle of Ankara, taken captive Amir Timur.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Muhammad I, the son of Bayazid
ascended the throne.
||In the Timurids empire, Death of Amir Timur, succession of
his son Shah Rukh.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Shadi Beg,
installation of Faulad Khan by the king maker Edigu.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Faulad Khan,
installation of Timur.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Timur,
installation of Jalaluddin. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Nasiruddin
Faraj, succession of Al Muayyad.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Jalaluddin,
installation of Karim Bardo.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Karim Bardo,
installation of Kubak Khan.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Kubak Khan,
installation of Jahar Balrawi. Deposition of Jahar Balrawi, installation of
||In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Edigu, overthrow of
Chaighray, power captured by Ulugh Muhammad.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Ulugh Muhammad overthrown by
Daulat Bairawi. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Qara Yusuf;
succession of his son Qara Iskandar. In Morocco, Assassination of Abu Said
Othman; succession of his infant son Abdul Haq.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Muhammad I; accession
of his son Murad II. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Al Muayyad,
succession of Muzaffar Ahmad. Muzaffar Ahmad overthrown by Amir Saifuddin
Tata, Death of Saifuddin Tata, succession of his son Muhammad. Muhammad
overthrown by Amir Barsbay.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Daulat Bairawi,
succession of Berk. In Algeria, The Halsida of Tunisia occupy Algeria. This
state of affairs continued throughout the fifteenth century.
||In the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr, a prince of the house of
Uzbeg declare his independence in the western part of Siberia.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Berk overthrown by Ulugh
Muhammad who captured power for the second time.
||In the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr occupies Khawarazm.
||Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Deposition of Qara
Iskandar; installation of his brother Jahan Shah. Turkomans of the White
Sheep empire, Death of Qara Othman, succession of his son Ali Beg. In
Tunisia, Death of Abul Faris after a rule of forty years, succession of his
son Abu Abdullah Muhammad.
||In Tunisia, Deposition of Abu Abdullah Muhammad, power
captured by Abu Umar Othman.
||In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Barsbay, accession of
his minor son Jamaluddin Yusuf; Yusuf overthrown and power captured by the
Chief Minister Saifuddin Gakmuk. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Ali
Beg overthrown by his brother Hamza.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Ulugh Muhammad withdrew from
Sarai and found the principality of Qazan. Said Ahmad came to power in Sarai.
||Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Hamza overthrown by
Jahangir a son of Ali Beg.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Crimea seceded from Sarai.
||In the Timurids empire, Death of Shah Rukh, succession of
Ulugh Beg. In the Ottoman Turks empire, Second battle of Kossova resulting
in the victory of the Turks. Serbia annexed to Turkey and Bosnia became its
||In the Golden Horde empire, Astra Khan seceded from Sarai.
||In the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr captures Farghana. In the
Timurids empire, Death of Ulugh Beg, succession of Abdul Latif.
||In the Timurids empire, Assassination of Abdul Latif,
accession of Abu Said.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Murad II; accession
of his son Muhammad II.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Capture of Constantinople by
the Turks. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Jahangir; accession
of his son Uzun Hasan. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Gakmuk.
succession of his son Fakhruddin Othman. Othman overthrown by the Mamluk
General Saifuddin Inal.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Attack against Wallachia,
Wallachia became a vassal state of Turkey.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Serbia.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Bosnia and
Herzogovina. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Inal,
succession of his son Shahabuddin Ahmad. Shahabuddin Ahmad overthrown by the
Mamluk General Saifuddin Khushqadam.
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Albania.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Said Ahmad, succession
of his son Khan Ahmad. In Morocco, Assassination of Abdul Haq. End of the
Marinid rule. Power snatched by Sharif Muhammad al Jati.
||Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Jahan Shah,
end of the rule of the Black Sheep Turkoman rule. Turkomans of the White
Sheep empire, Jahan Shah of the Black Sheep attacked the White Sheep. Jahan
Shah was defeated and the Black Sheep territories annexed by the White
Sheep. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Khushqadam, accession of his
son Saifuddin Yel Bey. Deposition of Yel Bey, power captured by the Mamluk
General Temur Bugha.
||In the Uzbegs empire, Death of Abul Khayr, succession of
his son Haidar Sultan. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Uzun Hasan
defeated the Timurids at the battle of Qarabagh whereby the White Sheep
became the masters of Persia and Khurasan. In the Burji Mamluks empire,
Deposition of Femur Bugha, power captured by the Mamluk General Qait Bay.
||In the Timurids empire, Death of Abu Said, disintegration
of the Timurid state. In Khurasan Hussain Baygara came to power and he ruled
during the remaining years of the fifteenth century.
||In Morocco, Sharif Muhammad al Jati overthrown by the
Wattisid chief Muhammad al Shaikh who establishes the rule of the Wattisid
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, War against Persia; Persians
||In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Crimea. War
against Venice. Tukey became the master of the Aegean Sea.
||Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Uzun Hasan,
succession of his son Khalil.
||Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Khalil overthrown by
his uncle Yaqub.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Assassination of Khan Ahmad,
succession of his son Said Ahmad II.
||In the Golden Horde empire, Said Ahmad I1 overthrown by his
brother Murtada. In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Muhammad II,
accession of Bayazid II.
||In the Uzbegs empire, Death of Haider Sultan, succession of
his nephew Shaybani Khan. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Umar Othman after a rule
of 52 years, succession of Abu Zikriya Yahya.
||In Tunisia, Abu Zikriya Yahya overthrown by Abul Mumin.
||In Tunisia, Abul Mumin overthrown, power recaptured by Abu
||Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Yaqub.
accession of his son Bayangir.
||Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Bayangir overthown by
his cousin Rustam.
||In the Burji Mamluks empire, Abdication of Qait Bay,
succession of his son Nasir Muhammad.
||Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Rustam overthrown by
Ahmad. Anarchy and fragmentation.
||In the Burji Mamluks empire, Deposition of Nasir Muhammad,
power captured by Zahir Kanauh.
||In the Uzbegs empire, Shayhani Khan conquered Transoxiana.
In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Murtada, succession of Said Ahmad III."
In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks defeated the Venetian fleet in the
battle of Lepanto.
||Sind annexed by the Mughals. End of the Arghun rule in Sind.
||Khandesh annexed by the Mughals.
||Battle of Urmiyah. Turks suffer defeat. Persia occupies
Tabriz, Mesopotamia. Mosul and Diyarbekr. Death of Muhammad III, Sultan of
Turkey, accession of Ahmad I. In Morocco al Shaikh died.
||In Indonesia death of Alauddin Rayat Shah, Sultan of Acheh,
accession of Ali Rayat Shah III.
||Death of the Mughal emperor Akbar; accession of Jahangir.
||Annexation of Ahmadnagar by the Mughals.
||Annexation of Bidar by the Mughals
||Kuch Behar subjugated by the Mughals.
||Kamrup annexed by the Mughals.
||Death of Ahmad I, Sultan of Turkey, accession of Mustafa;
Deposition of Mustafa: accession of Othman II.
||Tipperah annexed by the Mughals.: '
||In Turkey deposition of Mustafa, accession of Othman II.
||In Turkey Mustafa recaptured power.
||In Turkey deposition of Mustafa, accession of Murad IV.
||Death of the Mughal emperor Jahangir, accession of Shah
||Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I comes to an end.
||In Persia death of Shah Abbas; accession of grandson Safi.
||Death of Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan
and the lady of Taj Mahal, Agra.
||Death of Iskandar Muda in Indonesia; accession of Iskandar
||Death of Otthman Sultan Murad IV. accession of his brother
||Turks capture Azov. In Indonesia death of Iskandar II;
accession of the Queen Tajul Alam.
||In Persia death of Shah Safi, accession of Shah Abbas II.
||In Turkey Ibrahim deposed; accession of Muhammad IV.
||Muhammad Kuiprilli becomes the Grand Minister in Turkey.
||Deposition of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, accession of
||Death of Muhammad Kuiprilli, accession of his son Ahmad
||Death of Shah Abbas II; accession of Shah Sulaiman.
||Execution of the Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur. In Indonesia death
of the queen Tajul Alam, accession of the queen Nur ul Alam.
||Death of the Grand Wazir of Turkey Ahmad Kuiprilli,
succession by Kara Mustafa.
||In Indonesia death of the queen Nur ul Alam, accession of
the queen Inayat Zakia.
||Death of Marhatta chieftain Shivaji.
||Assam annexed by the Mughals. Aurangzeb shifts the capital
to Aurangabad in the Deccan.
||The Turks lift the siege of Vienna and retreat. Kara
Mustafa the Grand Wazir executed for the failure of the expedition.
||Annexation of Bijapur by the Mughals.
||Golkunda annexed by the Mughals. Second battle of Mohads.
Defeat of the Turks by Austria. Deposition of Muhammad IV. Accession of
||In Indonesia death of queen Inayat Zakia, accession of the
||Death of the Ottoman Sultan Sulaiman II, accession of Ahmad
||Death of the Turk Sultan Ahmad II, accession of Mustafa II.
||In Persia death of Shah Safi, accession of Shah Hussain.
||In Indonesia death of Queen Kamalah.
||Shah Abdul Aziz ibn Saud assassinated by a Shia fanatic.
Shah Shuja proclaimed as King of Afghanistan.
||Ibn Saud captured Madinah defeating the Turk garrison.
||Othman Dan Fodio established Islamic State of Sokoto in
||Faraizi movement launched in Bengal. Muhammad Ali appointed
Pasha of Egypt by the Turks.
||Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of
Muhammad Rahim Khan.
||Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish domination. Tunisia
repudiated suzerainty of Algeria.
||Birth of Ali Muhammad Bab founder of Bab movement.
||British occupied Indonesia.
||Madina fell to Egyptians.
||Makkah and Taif captured by Egyptian forces and Saudis
expelled from Hijaz.
||Iran executed treaty of alliance with the British known as
||Death of Ibn Saud II.
||King Othman of Tunisia assassinated by his cousin Mahmud.
||British withdrew from Indonesia restoring it to the Dutch.
||Death of Maulay Ismail in Morocco.
||Malaya became a preserve of the British according to Anglo-
Netherland treaty in 1824.
||Russia declared war against Turkey.
||Treaty of Adrianople.
||French forces landed near Algiers and occupied Algeria
ending 313 years rule of Turks.
||Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismail leaders of Jihad
movement in India fell fighting the Sikhs in Balakot.
||Turks defeated in the battle of Konia by Egyptian forces.
||Sayyid Said, King of Oman, shifted his capital to Zanzibar.
||Abdul Qadir recognised as ruler of the area under his
control by the French.
||Defeat of Turkey by the Egyptians in the battle of Nisibin.
||Quadruple Alliance by the European powers to force Egypt to
||British frees occupied Aden.
||State of Adamawa established by Adams adjacent to Nigeria.
||Amir Abdul Qadir, ousted from Algeria by the French.
crossed over to Morocco.
||Shah Shuja assassinated ending the Durrani rule in
||Amir Abdul Qadir surrendred to France under the condition
of safe conduct to a Muslim country of his choice but France violated its
pledge and sent him as a captive to France.
||Death of Muhammad Ali pasha.
||Ali Muhammad Bab arrested and executed by Iranian
government. Qurratul Ain Tabira, a renowned poetess and staunch advocate of
Babism also shot dead.
||Release of Amir Abdul Qadir by Napolean III. He settled in
||Khiva annexed by Russia.
||British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India
after 332 years. Last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to
Rangoon in Burma. This was also the end of 1000 years of Muslim rule over
||Imam Shamil laid down arms before Russian forces and the
Islamic State of Daghestan became a Russian province.
||Maulay Muhammad defeated by Spain.
||Death of Sultan Abdul-Majid of Turkey.
||Faraizi movement fizzled out after the death of Dadu Miyan..
||Khoqand State liquidated by Russia.
||Jamaluddin Afghani exiled from Afghanistan. He proceeded to
||Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Turkey through a Firman.
||Britain purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal
and got involved in Egyptian affairs.
||Turkey handed over Cyprus to Britain.
||Adrianople fell to Russia.
||Jamaluddin Afghani exiled from Egypt.
||Treaty of Berlin. Turkey lost 4/5 th of its territory in
||France invaded Tunisia and the Bey acknowledged supremacy
of France as a result of the treaty of Bardo.
||Muhammad Ahmad declared himself Mahdi in northern Sudan.
||Egypt came under British military occupation.
||Death of Amir Abdul Qadir in Damascus.
||Muhammad Ahmad declared free Government of Sudan under his
||Death of Mahdi Sudani five months after the occupation of
||End of Banbara State.
||Afghanistan got Wakhan corridor by an understanding with
Russia and British India making Afghan border touch China.
||Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed prophethood.
||State of Bagirimi occupied by the French.
||Fall of Mahdi State occupied by the British and the
||Ibn Saud (Abd al-Aziz) captures Riyad.
||French forces occupy Morocco.
||Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Conference
||The Presian constitution is promoted.
||The beginning of the Salafiyyah movement in Paris with it's
main sphere of influence in Egypt.
||The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey.
||The beginning of the Muhammadiyyah reform movement in
||Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are
||World War I.
||Arab revolt against Ottoman (Turkish) rule. Lawrence of
Arabia leads attacks on the Hijaz Railway.
||Armistice signed with Ottomans on October 30.
||World War I ends on November 11.
||Syria and Damascus become a French protectorate.
||Abd Allah bin Husayn in made King of Transjordan. His
father was the Sharif of Mecca.
||Faysal bin Husayn is made King of Iraq. His father was the
Sharif of Mecca.
||Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in
Moroccan Rif, and declares the "Republic of the Rif".
||Mustafa Kemal abolishes the Turkish Sultanate.
||The Turkish Caliphate is abolished.
||King Abd al-Aziz conquers Mecca and Medina, which leads to
the unification of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hijaz.
||Reza Khan seizes the government in Persia and establishes
the Pahlavi dynasty.
||Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) assumes title of King of Najd and
||Death of Zaghlul, an Egyptian nationalist leader.
||Turkey is declared a secular state.
||Hasan al-Banna founds the Muslim Brotherhood.
||Iraq granted independence by League of Nations.
||War between King Abd al-Aziz and Imam Yahya of the Yemen.
||Peace treaty of Ta'if.
||Asir becomes part of Saudi Arabia.
||Iran becomes the official name of Persia.
||Increased Jewish immigration provokes widespread
Arab-Jewish fighting in Palestine.
||World War II.
||British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is
forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah in Iran.
||Beginning of Zionist terrorist campaign in Palestine.
||End of World War II.
||Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from
Britain and France.
||Creation of Pakistan from Muslim Majority area in India.
||Creation of state of Israel. Arab armies suffer defeat in
war with Israel.
||Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is
||Libya becomes independent.
||King Faruq of Egypt forced to abdicate.
||General Zahedi leads coup against Musaddeq, Shah returns to
||Death of King Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) of Saudi Arabia.
||The foundation stone is laid to enlarge the Prophet's
mosque in Medina.
||Morocco becomes independent.
||Tunisia becomes independent.
||The Bey of Tunisia is deposed, and Bourguiba becomes
||Enlargement of the Haram in Mecca begins.
||Algeria becomes independent.
||Death of Zaydi Imam of Yemen (Ahmad). Crown Prince Bahr
succeds him and takes the title Imam Mansur Bi-Llah Muhammad.
||Malcom X is assassinated.
||The enlargement of the Haram in Mecca is completed.
||King Idris of Libya is ousted by a coup led by Colonel
||King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is overthrown.
||Death of Elijah Mohammad, leader of Nation of Islam among
African Americans in North America.
||Wallace Warith Deen Mohammad assumes leadership of Nation
of Islam and shifts movement toward Islamic Orthodoxy renaming it American
||Imam Musa Sadr is apparently assassinated after he
disappears on a trip to Libya. He was the religious leader of the Lebanese
Twelve-Imam Shi'ites. He promoted the resurgence of Shi'ites in Lebanon and
set the foundation of Amal.
||The Shah leaves Iran on January 15, thus bringing the
Pahlavi dynasty to an end.
||On 1 Muharram AH 1400/21 November, the first day of the
15th Islamic century, fanatics led by students of the Theological University
of Medina attempt to promote one of their group as Mahdi and thus fulfill a
certain prophetic Hadith: "A man of the people of Medina will go forth,
fleeing to Mecca, and certain of the people of Mecca will come to him and
will lead him forth against his will and swear fealty to him between the
rukn (Black Stone corner of the Kabah) and the Maqam Ibrahim." They hold the
Haram of Mecca against the army for two weeks. Sixty-three of the 300
fanatics are captured alive, the mosque is recovered, and the conspirators
are all put to death.
||Beginning of the Iran-Iraq war.
||Iran-Iraq comes to an end with much loss of life.
||Military annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, under Ba'athist
leader Saddam Hussain, is reversed in 1991 by a coalition of United