Cases in which fighting is permitted.
The Prophet kept preaching the Message of God for years without any fight, enduring the severe harmful effects inflicted upon him by the Arabs in Mecca and the Jews in Medina. His Companions used to come to him beaten and wounded, complaining of their case and requesting his permission to resist hostility with equal measures. He used to tell them: "Keep your patience; I have not been commanded to fight." Some of the Companions even paid their lives through torture and persecution, like Sumayya Un-Ammar Ibn Yasser, because they were Moslems, and were persecuted to give up Islam, which they never did.
Events then developed and polytheists used different methods to inflict harm on Moslems. Finally they decided to kill the Prophet. When the latter learned of the intention, he immigrated to Medina and was warmly welcomed by its people who pledged allegiance to him in the cause of Islam.
The atheists were not content with trying to kill the Prophet, but also provoked non-Moslem tribes against him in order to put an end to his Message. When the case reached this stage, God gave permission to Mohammed to fight.
Upon examining closely the Koranic passages in which God requests Moslems to fight, we find them clarify that war should be a means to drive away aggression and tyranny. God says: "To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight) because they are wronged; and verily God is Most Powerful for their aid. (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right, (for no cause) except that they say 'Our Lord is God.' Had not God checked one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled-down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of God is commemorated in abundant measure. God will certainly aid those who aid His (Cause); for verily God is Full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (Able to enforce His Will)" (22:39-40).
As for victorious Believers, God says: "(They are) those who, if We give them power in the land, establish regular prayer and give regular charity, enjoin the right and forbid the wrong. With God doth rest the end (and decision) of (all) affairs" (22:41).
Military victory should not lead to expansion or dominance as the case is with colonial regimes, nor should it lead to control over sources of wealth, or to arrogance in the land to raise a race above another. Victorious believers had better "establish regular prayers" to attain spiritual exaltation by worshipping God, and to purify their spirits. They "establish regular charity" and thus establish social justice by supporting the right of the needy to live a decent life. They "enjoin the right" by spreading benevolence and right among people, and "forbid the wrong" by fighting against evil and corruption and uprooting them from society.
The Prophet fought only to drive away aggression, after having received his divine orders: "Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not transgree limits; God loveth not transgressors" (2:190).
B. Fighting in the Cause of God:
The Islamic nation is commanded to establsih justice on earth, and this requires Moslems to stand in the face of injustice and oppression, wherever they may be, and eradicate their causes, and not to take hold of the earth, or enslave people or dominate their welfare, but establish the Word of God on earth, without doubtful intentions. In Islam, this is called the "strife in the cause of God" and the "fight in the cause of God." The Koran commands: "Fight in the cause of God, and know that God heareth and knoweth all things" (2:244). "And strive in His cause as ye ought to strive (with sincerity and under discipline)" (22:78).
The cause of God is the cause of justice. Every fight in the cause and support of freedom in religion is a fight in the cause of God; and every fight to drive away oppression and support the oppressed against the oppressor, or to support right and justice, is a fight in the cause of God. Every effort done to attain or protect justice, is also done in the cause of God.
The Koran demands believers to fight in the cause of God, without any worldly intentions. The following verses, sent down to the Prophet in Medina, clarify the aims of war: "Let those fight in the cause of God who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter. Whoseo fighteth in the cause of God, be he slain or victorious, on him soon shall We bestow a reward of great (value). Why should ye not fight in the cause of God and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated and (oppressed)? -- men, women and children whose cry is: Our Lord! Rescue us from this town (Mecca) whose people are oppressors, and raise for us from Thy Presence one who will protect; raise for us from Thy Presence one who will help" (4:74-75).
A hint is made here that, in Islam, war is not for oppressing or enslaving people; it is waged for the cause of God and weak people, like those in Mecca who were persecuted and oppressed by the Meccan atheists. It is the duty of every believer to support people like these and relieve them from oppression, people who no longer have any supporter and thus turn to God for refuge.
Then God says: "Those who believe fight in the cause of God, and those who reject Faith fight in the cause of Evil. So fight ye against the minions of Satan; feeble indeed is the cunning of Satan" (4:76).
Evil means transgression of limits. Thus when one transgresses limits. behaves arrogantly in the land, enslaves others and deprives them of their rights or of having a share in the riches of the earth, he is said to be fighting "in the cause of Evil" which God criticizes severely and considers as the motto of atheists. The aim of fighting in the cause of God is to spread Divine Law (which calls for justice and freedom of religion) in the world without there being any selfish intent or arrogance in the land, as God wants the case to be: "That Home of the Hereafter We shall give to those who intend no high-handedness or mischief on earth, and the End is (best) for the righteous" (28:83).
To this effect, Mohammed sent his delegates to eight neighbouring rulers with messages calling them to embrace Islam. The appeal was rejected. Some of them even killed the Prophet's delegates, and some tore the message and threatened the delegates who had brought it. The rulers of the time were a clear obstacle in front of the individuals' freedom and their right to live in justice and to choose their religion freely. Islam was the civilized step in the development of humankind that the despots of the time were a barrier to. Islam declared war against an obsolete form of tyrannical governing. If Islam used force, then only to enforce justice that resulted in fascinating civilizations in every area where Islam entered.
In his book "Esquisse de l'Historie Universelle," Dr. Najib Armanazi says, "When the Arabs made ready to fight the Persians and Romans, these had already ... [had] a history of oppression and tyranny whuch exterminates citizens, inflicts unfair burdens on them, and kills their patriotic feelings and loyalty to rulers. ... Mazdaism and Christianity .. branched into a number of major schools which inherited only hostility and hatred, and inflicted suffering on each other.... Thus Islam faced no public resistance during its spread ... The Arabs were definitely more truthful, just and merciful."
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