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Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq

Written by: by Muhammad Rajih Jad'an :: (View All Articles by: Muhammad Rajih Jad'an)
  1. Introduction
  2. Abu Bakr's companionship with the Prophet
  3. Abu Bakr's character
  4. The wars of apostasy
  5. The conquest of 'Iraq
  6. The conquest of Syria
  7. Compilation of the Qur'an
  8. The end


It was in the U.S.A. that I first had the idea of writing a book about Abu Bakr Assiddeeq. In the summer of 1982 , I visited my son who was studying engineering at Pennsylvania State University. One night he invited some of his fellow-students to his apartment and they asked a lot of questions about Islam. I noticed that there was considerable interest in Abu Bakr, Prophet Mohammed's closest follower and friend. I am now trying to remember those students' questions and to supply adequate answers, in the hope that these answers will be appreciated by them and that other people all over the world will read them and benefit from them.\

Abu Bakr's companionship with the Prophet

It has to be mentioned right from the beginning that both Prophet Muhammad and Abu Bakr Assiddeeq had similar  1  temperaments  2 . Both were kind, lenient,  3  merciful  4  truthful and honest. Both found comfort in solitude  5  and abstained  6  from drinking alcohol, even before Islam was established  7 . Abu Bakr's complexion  8 was fair, and he was rather slim  9 . He was tender, wise  10  and solemn  11  and seldom joined 12  in the polytheistic 13  celebrations of his countrymen  14  .

After the Prophet had married Khadeejah, the wealthy, 40-year-old landlady 15  from Mecca, his lodging  16 was very close to that of Abu Bakr. According to `Aishah, Abu Bakr's daughter and the prophet's wife after the death of Khadeejah, her father was frequently visited by the Prophet, with whom he developed a strong friendship 17  .

When God's message was revealed 18  to Muhammad, the first man to believe in him was Abu Bakr. In fact, Abu Bakr had always doubted the validity 19  of idolatry 20  and had very little enthusiasm 21  for worshipping  22  idols. So when he accepted Islam he did his best to attract other people to it. Soon `Othman bin Affan, Abdul-Rahman bin Awf, Talhah bin Obaydillah, Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas, Al-Zubayr bin Al-'Awwam and Abu Obaydah bin AI-Jarrah all flocked to join Muhammad (May God bless him and give him peace). The Prophet once said: ''`Abu Bakr was the only person who accepted Islam immediately, without suspicion. 23 

Abu Bakr's occupation was drapery 24 . Adraper, in order to be successful 25  in his trade 26  should not go against his customers' 27  wishes. Nevertheless, he preached  28 the new religion ardently  29 without considering how it might affect his business. When the infidels 30  started torturing  31 their poor Muslim slaves 32 , Abu Bakr intervened  33 . As he was unable to release 34  them by force, he paid their masters money and set them free. Bilal bin Rabah was one of those who were tortured in the sun, by being brutally 35 whipped  36  and covered with heavy rocks while lying on the burning sand in the summer heat. When Islam started, Abu Bakr had 40,000 dirhems but by the time he emigrated to Madina he had only 5,000 left.

When the Prophet spoke with contempt of the disbelievers' gods, the infidels got very irritated and attacked him violently when he was on his way to the Ka'ba. Had it not been for Abu Bakr's intervention, something bad might have happened to him.

As the Qurayshites rejected the Prophet's message, he started to look for another tribe 37  which would give him refuge 38  .He was accompanied on this search by Abu Bakr. The only shelter 39  which they could find was in Yathreb, or Madina, which was then inhabited 40  by two warring 41  tribes, the Aws and Khazraj. Later, through the Prophet's good offices, the two tribes became united and were given the name of "Ansar" or "Helpers".

Abu Bakr was known as "Assiddeeq' after the incident on the Prophet's midnight journey  42  to Jerusalem. The Qurayshites, being experienced 43  merchants 44  knew that such a journey, if it ever happened, would take two months by camel. When Muhammad told them he had accomplished his round trip  45 to Jerusalem in one night, they scoffed 46  at him and began to doubt his sanity 47 . As for Abu Bakr, when he first heard of it he thought that they were telling a tale; he then said, "I have always believed his words about heavenly 48  revelation 49  how can I disbelieve him about such a secondary wordly matter?"

Because of the ruthless 50  torturing of the Prophet's followers, many of them emigrated  51  to Abyssinia. Yet Abu Bakr would not leave. He preferred to stay with the Prophet to support  52  him in his time of need and help the new converts. When many Muslims emigrated to Madina, Abu Bakr asked the Prophet's permission to follow suit. He was told to wait because the Prophet himself might leave with him. So he got two camels ready and waited anxiously  53 A few days later, while the Prophet's house was besieged  54 by a group of swordsmen 55  from all the tribes of Mecca, who had plotted  56 together to kill him, he left his cousin, `Ali bin Abi Talib, in his bed, slipped 57  unnoticed from the house, and departed  58 with Abu Bakr in the early hours of the morning. Their journey from Mecca to Madina was full of romance and adventure. As soon as the besieging swordsmen discovered that they were tricked  59 , they went in search of the two men. A public prize of a hundred camels was offered to anyone who might find them. However, it happened that when they hid in a cave named Thawr, a spider spun its web 60  at the opening of the cave, and a pigeon built its nest there. The swordsmen followed their tracks until they reached their hiding place, but, seeing the web and the early hours of the morning. Their journey from Mecca to Madina was full of romance and adventure. As soon as the besieging nest, they went home, telling everyone that further pursuit was fruitless 61  .

Later when the battle of Badr took place between Muslims and non-Muslims, and the latter 62  out numbered the former by three to one, some sort of canopy  63 was erected  64  for the Prophet at the battle lines. Abu Bakr alone was entrusted  65 with his safety. This shows the very close relationship between the two; and when the Prophet's mantle 66  fell from his shoulders during his earnest 67  prayer to God, his intimate companion put it courteously  68 back.

In the battle of Ohod, which took place the following year after Badr, the disbelievers 69  won the battle because the archers  70 left their places on the top of the mountain. Only a dozen people stayed with the Prophet on this occasion, one of whom was the staunch 71  believer Abu Bakr.

This loyalty was evident in all the campaigns which the Prophet led, especially those waged 72  against the Jews of Banu Nadier and Banu Qaynoqa', and against the Jews of Fadak, Tayma' and Khaybar, not to mention the heroic battle of the Trench. In fact, from the very start of the Islamic era 73 he  was playing the role of vizier  74  advising and supporting the Prophet.

In the year 6 A.H. the Muslims attempted 75  to take Mecca itself, the stronghold  76  of polytheism. When they reached the Hodaybiya Valley, Quraysh sent negotiators 77  to persuade them not to attack the city and agreed to let them in for pilgrimage the following year. The Prophet agreed, but some of his followers refused. They were determined to conquer 78  Mecca immediately. Abu Bakr stood firmly by the side of the Prophet; but it was only when a full Qur'anic chapter entitled "Fath" or "Conquest" was revealed that they were finally convinced. 79 

When Mecca was at last subdued  80 , all the tribes of Arabia were convinced that Muhammad was a true apostle sent to them by God. They stopped resisting and sent delegates 81  to Madina proclaiming their allegiance  82 to him. While he was busy receiving delegates, he let Abu Bakr preside over the 300 pilgrims. This incident proved of vital 83  importance later when a caliph was chosen after the death of the Prophet.

The 10th year A.H. was called "the valediction year", because the Prophet, with 100,000 followers, including Abu Bakr and all the Prophet's household 84 , performed his last pilgrimage and from the top of `Arafat mountain gave his everlasting 85  speech in which he summarized 86  the numerous commandments of Islam.

After his return to Madina the Prophet became ill and could not lead the prayers in the Grand Mosque. He gave instructions to 'Aishah' to tell her father to lead the prayers. She pointed out that Abu Bakr's voice was rather low and the worshippers might not hear his recitation  87 of the Qur'an. She also said that he often wept while praying, and suggested Omar bin al-Khattab as being fitter 88  for the task  89 .The Prophet became extremely angry, and gave emphatic 90  orders that Abu Bakr should lead the prayers. This was taken by the Muslims as another sign to choose Abu Bakr to be their caliph after the Prophet's death.

Abu Bakr's character

It is reasonable to ask how a man who held power for only 27 months could lay the foundations  1  of such a far flung2 empire which contained the most enlightened  3  parts of the ancient world.

 There is nothing striking  4 in the early life of this man. Abu Bakr's sub-tribe  5 was called Taym, before Islam. He himself was the head of his sub-tribe. He was the best-informed genealogist  6 in Mecca and he was an honest and trustworthy 7  merchant.

He is known by five different names, which is a mark of activity and efficiency 8  Before Islam he was called `Abdul-Ka'ba (servant of the Ka'ba). Then the Prophet changed it to `Abdullah (servant of God). Then he was called 'Ateeq', i.e. the one released 9  from hell. Later he was named Abu Bakr because he was the first man to accept Islam. Finally he was called Assiddeeq owing to his unwavering  10  belief in all that the Prophet had said.

Abu Bakr is known to have had an attractive  11 personality and this is why he was liked by everyone who met him. He had a fair complexion, a slim body and a thin face, with rather sunken  12  eyes and a high forehead  13 . His daughter `Aishah described him as being of a lenient temperament, with a sober attitude and a good sense of humour. Being endowed  14  with such qualities, he had a wide  15  circle of acquaintances  16 , who admired his kindness, humility and knowledge.

He married four times. Qutaylah, his first wife, gave birth to two children, Abdullah and Asma'. Umm - Ruman, his second wife, gave birth to two more children, Abdul-Rahman and `Aishah. After his emigration to Madina he married two other wives, Habeebah and Asma'.

 Abu Bakr was tender-hearted 17 and compassionate 18  . He sympathized  19  with the poor and pitied  20  the miserable. Usually, when reciting the Qur'an, he was deeply touched and wept.  21 After the battle of Badr, when the Prophet took a lot of captives from the Qurayshites, the captives  22  were defended by Abu Bakr. He spoke kindly on their behalf and managed to calm the Prophet's anger against them and then persuaded him to accept a ransom  23 and set them free.

Though Abu Bakr was kind-hearted, 24  he sometimes lost his temper and became extremely angry, especially when there was some sort of attack on Islam. When the Muslims emigrated to Madina, the Jews tried to win them over 25  to their side, hoping that the two warring Madinan tribes of Aws and Khazraj would continue their feuds 26  When they realized that Islam managed to unite the two warring tribes, the Jews started plotting against them. They used to meet in the house of one of their rabbis  27 who was called Finhas. Abu Bakr went to Finhas and advised him to accept Islam, pointing out that Muhammad was undoubtedly  28 a prophet, and Finhas must realize this as it was definitely mentioned in the Old Testament  29 .Finhas scoffed at his words and accused Allah of being poor as he, in the words of the Qur'an, demanded a loan and promised a manifold recompense to those who would lend him money. Hearing the Qur'an's words wrongly interpreted, Abu Bakr got angry and slapped 30  Finhas on the face shouting  31 "By God, were it not for the contract 32  between us, I would cut off  33  your head!" At that time there was an agreement  34  of peaceful co-existence  35 between Muslims and Jews.

But Abu Bakr's main characteristic  36  was his strong religious belief. From the moment he embraced  37  Islam he never suspected anything that the Prophet said or did. He followed his teachings meticulously38 offered all he possessed in order to launch  39 the new religion, and was never afraid to fight for its sake 40  in the fiercest 41  battles. During the twenty years of his friendship with the Prophet neither his enthusiasm nor his belief wavered  42 He was so spiritually 43  uplifted  44  that, in following the example of the Prophet, he got very close to perfection. In the presence of the Prophet he was practically eclipsed,  45 but in his absence he shone like a star. When the Prophet was alive he al ways supported him, and after his death he took over the torch of Islam and advanced with it steadfastly  46 to enlighten the world.

 Nothing can illustrate 47  his staunch belief better than his wager  48 with the Qurayshite infidel. This took place when the Romans, during their incessant  49 wars with the Persians, were defeated just a few years before the Muslims emigrated to Madina. The disbelievers celebrated the occasion because the losers were people of the Book, whose Bible was revealed from heaven like the Qur'an. Soon after, Chapterof the Qur'an was revealed to the Prophet, prophesying  50 that the Romans would be victorious in less than ten years. The Qurayshite infidel laid a ten-camel wager against a Roman victory, and Abu Bakr accepted the wager. Seven years later (2 A.H 623 A.D.) the Persians were badly routed  51  and the Romans won a decisive victory. Ironically 52  enough, the Muslims had their own brilliant victory on that day (17th Ramadhan, 2 A.H.), when they defeated the Qurayshites in the most significant 53  battle of Badr.

Among Abu Bakr's many virtues were impartiality 54  and justice. He considered all individuals equal in the eye of the law, and thought that the only way for anyone to excel was through piety and good works. The first day he became caliph, he delivered this oration: "I have been chosen caliph, though I am not the best of you. If I prove to be good, please help me. But if I prove to be to the contrary, then don't hesitate to put me right. Truth means honesty; and lies mean dishonesty. The weak among you is strong before the law until he is redeemed  55  from oppression  56  and the strong among you is weak before the law until he abstains from oppression. As long as I obey God and His Prophet, you have to obey me. But if I become disobedient  57  then you can disobey me."

Abu Bakr did not differentiate 58  between nationalities 59 as he was fully aware 60  of the internationalism  61  of Islam. He left in office Bazan, the Persian ruler of Yemen, because since his conversion 62 to Islam during the life of the Prophet he had never shown any sign of defection 63 . Salman was also a Persian who was treated with great respect. Suhayb, who was of Greek origin, was no less esteemed  64  Bilal the Abyssinian, Zayd bin Harithah, the Prophet's freed slave, and his son Osamah, were all treated with reverence  65 and respect 66 . In the following chapters we will examine some of these challenges; but here it is enough to mention his obstinacy  67  in fighting the apostates 68 When the Prophet died, most of the Arabian tribes stopped paying the Zakat. They considered it a heavy burden  69 which they all wished to shed 70 It seemed impossible for Abu Bakr to face such a huge 71  revolt, and many advisers, among whom was Omar bin al-Khattab, tried to persuade him to give in. Yet, he wouldn't. Instead, he vowed  72 to oppose the rebels  73 even though he had to tackle the tremendous  74  alone. He swore, "I will not forgo even a rope which they used to give to the Prophet."

Finally, his prudence and firmness 75  were among his outstanding  76 characteristics. He used to consider every problem thoughtfully 77  , and he was always willing to hear from his counsellors  78 ; but when he had reached a decision, he used to bring it into effect as efficiently and quickly as he could.

His clemency  79  was well known to everybody. Yet when the safety of the state was at stake 80  he became extremely firm and tough. Many insurgents  81  were put to death when they refused  82  to repent or pay the Zakat. Many people spoke badly of Khalid bin al -Waleed, the Prophet's appointed leader, whom Abu Bakr trusted implicitly 83  , only to admit in the end that Abu Bakr was a better judge of men and was right about him. After great deliberation  84 he decided to appoint `Omar bin al-Khattab his successor. Talhah bin `Obaydillah and others went to him during his illness and complained that' Omar was unfit for the post owing to his harsh attitude 85 . He sat up angrily 86 in bed and said, "I can see that every one of you wants to be caliph; but I have chosen the one whom God likes best, the one most suitable to guide you along the right path 87  At the time of prayers, he let his wife Asma' help him to the door, and addressed the congregation  88 , praising  89  his successor and asking for their opinion. They all agreed with his choice and the decision was approved.

 It should be stressed  90 here that by following the godly teachings of Islam to the letter, and by keeping those teachings always in mind, Abu Bakr proved well able to do justice to the grand post of caliph. He whole-heartedly  91 devoted himself to his job, so much so that he neglected the affairs of his family. In this way, he accomplished a significant task: - the linking of the prophetic era of heavenly revelation and the era of the fast extending empire of Islam. When he died, he passed the responsibility of controlling his already settled state to'Omar bin al-Khattab, who proved no less capable of the post.'Omar bin al-Khattab extended his realm further than anyone had expected by pushing his frontiers to the edge of both the Roman and the Persian empires.

The wars of apostasy

Abu Bakr becomes caliph

When the Prophet died in 11 A.H. (632 A.D.) many people, among whom was `Omar bin al-Khattab, refused to believe he had died. But Abu-Bakr, steadfast as usual, addressed the bewildered 1 multitude and convinced them that Muhammad was no more than an apostle like other apostles who had died before him, and that there was no reason why they should not acknowledge his death.

This crisis 2  was followed by another one more serious and alarming. While the Prophet' household was arranging for his funeral, the Ansar (his Madina helpers) were holding a meeting in their quarter to elect a caliph to succeed him. The caliph-elect was Sa'd bin `Obadah, one of the two tribal chiefs in Madina, who was ill and was carried to the meeting place on a stretcher 3 . When 'Omar bin al-Khattab heard of what was happening in the Banu Sa'idah quarter he called for Abu Bakr, who was in `Aishah's house helping to arrange for the funeral 4 . Accompanied by Abu `Obaydah, who was called by the Prophet "custodian of the state," they set out for the meeting. After much debate, in which both sides - the Madinans and the Maccans - expressed their opinions elaborately, 5  Abu Bakr was unanirnously  6 accepted caliph. Soon there was a public meeting in the Grand Mosque, and people from far and near flocked  7 there to swear their Oath 8  of allegiance.

Two people refused to give their allegiance. One was Sa'd bin 'Obadah, the Madinan caliph elect. He became very angry, abstained from praying when the prayers were led by Abu Bakr, and during the pilgrimage would practise the religious rites only by himself. The other one was Ali bin Abi Talib, the Prophet's cousin and son-in-law, who believed he was more entitled to the caliphate than Abu Bakr. Though Sa'd's refusal to give his allegiance lasted until the end of his life, Ali's did not last long, as he swore allegiance to Abu Bakr six months later when his wife, Fatmah, died.


Causes of the wars of apostasy

There were four main causes for these wars:

First, because of the dispute about the caliphate between the Maccan emigrants and the Prophet's Madinan helpers, various tribes favoured separatism  9 . "Why should the caliph be from Macca or Madina and not from among ourselves?" they asked.

Second, the Zakat which they used to send to Madina was collected by the Prophet! As the Prophet had died there was no reason for them to send it there. Besides, the Prophet had often agreed to local alms distribution; so why should they send their contributions 10 away?

Third, as the wars indicated, the uncivilized Bedouins had not been genuinely  11 converted to Islam; they had adopted it because they admired a man who could challenge the two greatest empires of their time. As soon as he died his magic died too and they turned away from Islam.

Fourth, the influence of the Romans from the north and the Persians and Abyssinians from the east and the south encouraged the distant tribes to adopt their own religions and beliefs.


Osamah's punitive expedition

Before his death the Prophet had equipped a powerful army to raid the southern borders of the Roman Empire. After his death, with a revolt on their hands, the Muslims wanted to cancel this expedition. But Abu Bakr firmly opposed the idea, saying: "I will never cancel 12 anything initiated by the Prophet." The curious thing about this army was that it was made up of most of the old companions of the Prophet, but its leader, Osamah bin Zayd, was a teenager. During the lifetime of the Prophet, his old companions objected but they were given a heated sermon in which both Osamah and his father were praised as competent leaders. In fact, Osamah was chosen for this operation because his father, Zayd bin Harithah, was killed in a former campaign inside the Roman borders, and he was now going to retaliate 13 

Abu Bakr, refusing to change a leader appointed by the Prophet, walked by the side of the mounted  14 leader in an endeavour 15 to raise his morale and to give his soldiers more confidence in him. He then said good-bye to the army, not forgetting to ask Osamah's permission to leave him `Omar bin Al-Khattab, who was his chief consultant. His ten commandments to the campaigners are still taught to school children throughout the Muslim World. "Never be dishonest or betray your friends, or take anything stealthily 16  for yourselves. Do not mutilate your captives, or kill children, women or old men. Never burn or cut down palm trees or fruitful trees. Never kill sheep or cows or camels unless you need them for your meals. You will see monks and nuns living in monasteries, do not cause them any harm 17 .If you are ever invited to a meal, do not forget to utter God's name while you are eating. But as for those with the hair on the crown of their heads cut short and all around left long, do not hesitate to strike them with your swords."

Osamah had been ordered by the Prophet to attack the infidel tribes living in the southern districts of Palestine. He carried out the order to the letter, gained lots of booty 18 and returned to Madina about two months later. He was praised for bravery and competence by his men. The aims of the campaign, which was considered by many as a prelude 19 to the conquest of Syria, were fully achieved.

1. The Yemeni impostor, Al-Aswad AI-'Ansi:

Though this impostor appeared in the days of the Prophet, it is most likely that he died when Abu Bakr was Caliph. He persuaded his countrymen to follow him by urging  20 them to rid their laud of both the Persians and the Arabs of Hejaz. First he occupied Nejran, then San'a', the capital, where he killed the Persian ruler and married his wife, Azad. Thus all Yemen came under his control, and Mu'ath, the Muslim Emir, fled to Madina. All this took place in the lifetime of the Prophet. Later, AI-Aswad started plotting against his ministers Fayruz, Dazawayh and Qays. These assistants, aided by his wife, managed to enter his bedroom at night and kill him. Thus, the first false prophet was put to death.

2. The apostates close to Madina:

As soon as Osamah's army set out northwards 21  the apostates in the neighbourhood  22 of Madina started being a nuisance 23 . First, they sent delegates to Abu Bakr suggesting the abolition 24  of Zakat. The caliph's counsellors advised him to agree to this request. But their advice was rejected as Abu Bakr refused to abolish anything the Prophet had prescribed. Knowing well that Madina was devoid of soldiers, the Bedroom apostates gathered  25 together and attacked the capital. But the wary caliph had taken sufficient precautions. The attack was repulsed and the Muslims, following up their victory, pursued 26  the insurgents to their camps. A battle ensued  27 at midnight in which the rebels used inflated  28 skins to frighten their opponents' camels. The camels were scared and the Muslims retreated to Madina. Yet Abu Bakr did not despair. He rearranged  29 his men, and attacked his enemies at dawn. They were surprised by the unexpected raid, took to their heels and joined the Asad tribe further northwards. Their land was confiscated 30 by the state, and when later they asked to have it back, their request was declined.

After the total defeat of the `Abs and Thubyan tribes in Thul-Qassah, as the mentioned battle was called, Abu Bakr's personal leadership of the army came to an end. Everyone entreated him to make his headquarters 31  in Madina, and to organise his armies from there to subjugate 32  the apostates. After Osamah's army had rested, Abu Bakr divided his troops into eleven brigades, which set forth determined to quell every sort of opposition. Before leaving, they were instructed not to attack any rebels before giving them warning  33 . First, they had to be called to the prayers; then they should agree to pay the Zakat. If the rebels took no notice, they could be attacked and punished by death, plunder or confiscation. A message to this effect was circulated among all tribes and in all directions throughout Arabia.

3. Tulayhah, the impostor of Banu Asad:

 The tribe of Banu Asadwanted a prophet of its own, and Tulayhah was the one they chose. He got rid 34 of the Zakat, decreased the number of prayers, and saidthat Gabriel was revealing a holy book to him. He was believed by many, and before long the remnants of 'Abs and Thubyan joined him and swore allegiance to him. The Tayyi' and Qays tribes followed suit, and the two scouts of Khalid bin AI-Waleed, the prominent 35 Muslim leader, who was sent by Abu Bakr to subdue the dissidents 36  , were brutally killed. Seeing the sudden demoralization of his men, Khalid promptly took up quarters with the Banu Tayyi' who, thanks to their magnanimous 37  chief, 'Adiyy bin Hatim, re-embraced Islam and supplied the Muslims with adequate reinforcements 38 

It was not long before the two armies met at Buzakhah. Tayyi' confronted Qays, and Khalid confronted Banu Asad. Tulayhah did not take part in the battle, but kept hidden inside a tent, prophesying. `Oyaynah, his Qaysi ally, who was fighting at the head of 700 troops, came in from time to time to enquire about Gabriel's revelation. Discovering that the imposter was uttering  39 nonsense, he called for his men and left the battlefied  40 for good. Tulayhah, being left alone, jumped onto his horse and, with his wife Nuwar behind him, fled  41 to Syria. Later he re-embraced Islam, went on the pilgrimage, and even participated in the conquest of Iraq.

4. Umm-Ziml and Banu Fazarah:

While Khalid bin Al-Waleed was taking prisoners at Buzakhah, avenging 42  the betrayed 43  scouts and martyrs, and sending captives of high rank to AbuBakr, among whom was `Oyaynah, the Qaysi chief something momentous was happening at the Fazarah camps. The scattered 44  remnants 45  gathered round a daring woman called Umm-Ziml, whose mother had been killed in the days of the Prophet during a punitive campaign, and who therefore wanted to retaliate. She was `Oyaynah's cousin, and Khalid hastened 46  to attack her. During the battle she was mounted on a camel and fought bravely. Her men fought heroically as well. Khalid found the best way to get rid of her was to offer a hundred camels to the person who would kill her mount. No fewer than a hundred men were killed around her, and when at last she fell, her men dispersed and the fighting came to an end.

5. Sajah, the impostress of Banu Taghlib:

Sajah was the only female false prophet in Arabia. She was originally from Tameem, but was married in Taghlib, further to the north, where the people were all Christians. It is most likely that she was urged to rebel by her Christian people or by the bordering Persians, who disliked seeing their neighbours become so powerful 47  .

sajah's appearance among the Banu Tameem was sudden and dramatic. She was surrounded by insurgents from various tribes, and soon agreed with Malik bin Nuwayrah, the Tameemi chief, to unite their forces against those who remained Muslim. In the war which they waged neither side could gain the upper hand, and Sajah decided to attack Madina. On her way westwards she met a Muslim battalion and was violently repulsed. Having been twice unsuccessful, she set out eastwards determined to subdue Musaylimah, the great impostor of Banu Haneefah. However, when she opened negotiations with him, she became so attracted to him that they got married. After spending three days in his room, she returned to her camp, but without a dowry. There, she was so taunted 48  that she returned to Musaylimah, who had his gates shut in her face. She sent delegates and her dowry was fixed at the reduction of two daily prayers those of the early morning and the late evening. She was also given half the products of Banu Haneefah, though she could receive only a quarter. This was owing to the loud trumpets of Khalid bin Al-Waleed, which were heard in the distance announcing the arrival of the Muslims.

6. Malik bin Nuwayrah and Banu Tameem:

After Khalid bin AI-Waleed had put an end to Umm Ziml's insurrection, he turned his attention to Bitah, the quarters of Malik bin Nuwayrah and his tribe Tameem. Malik, having already united with sajah against his Muslim tribesmen, was exceedingly perplexed  49 , declared he was Muslim again and advised his men to disperse and stay at home. Nevertheless Khalid soon had Malik brought before him and a detailed inquiry  50 was made into the charges brought against him. Full information about this inquiry is not available, and the different accounts lack authenticity.

Yet it is certain that Malik was put to the sword, and that Khalid married his beautiful wife, Layla, on the spot - an abominable deed thoroughly detested by every Bedouin according to the customs of Arabia. It was both illegal and scandalous, 51  and Abu Qatadah, a Madinan helper of the Prophet, withdrew 52  from the campaign, went back to Madina and petitioned 53  the caliph, who summoned  54 Khalid for questioning. On entering the Grand Mosque in his rusty 55  armour with arrows stuck in his turban, Khalid was noticed by `Omar bin Al-Khattab, who went up to him, pulled out the arrows and broke them into pieces. He said threateningly 56 : "You have killed a Muslim in cold blood and taken his wife for yours!By God! You will be stoned!"

Nevertheless, when Khalid met the Caliph, he managed to defend himself and was excused, though he did not escape being criticized for his disgraceful  57 marriage with Layla. On leaving, he did not miss the chance to gloat  58 when he said good-bye to'Omar. In fact, Abu Bakr badly needed Khalid's fighting skills 59  in Yamamah, where the impostor, Musaylimah, had already defeated two successive leaders dispatched  60 for his subjugation.

7. Musaylimah, the impostor of Banu Haneefah:

The first leader sent to Musaylimah was'lkrimah bin Abu Jahl. Thoughstrict orders were given to him by Abu Bakr not to engage the impostor till reinforcements arrived, he was so anxious to get the better of him that he immediately started fighting, and was defeated. The second leader was Shurahbeel, who was also repulsed.

Musaylimah had an army 40,000 strong, well- trained and ready to defend him to the last man. It is said that he had little personality, and is described by historians as frail, short of stature and pug-nosed. 61  In the year of delegations, when the chiefs of Banu Haneefah presented themselves before the Prophet to acknowledge his prophethood and pay the Zakat, Musaylimah was not among the chiefs, but was left behind to take care of the camels. His present was sent to him only when the Prophet was reminde of him.
Musaylimah never wanted to be a prophet. Ironically enough, he was urged to claim 62  he was, by a preacher called Nahar Al-Rajjal, who was sent by Prophet Muhammad to teach his tribe the rudiments 63  of Islam, after taking a course in religion in Madina. Being a clever opportunist 64 , Nahar Al-Rajjal chose Musaylimah as a means of achieving his aims. Urged on by Nahar Al-Rajjal, Musaylimah claimed that Gabriel had started revealing to supply the details and teachings to him. He relied on Nahar AI-Rajjal; in this way Nahar could enjoy all the pleasures and luxuries 65  he liked.

It would be a waste of time to dwell for long on Musaylimah's words and prophecies, as they are largely nonsensical 67 . Besides, history has retained only a few examples of them. Yet, when the battle of `Aqraba flared 68  up there was his eloquent  69 son, Shurahbeel, to encourage the troops. He remindedthem of Khalid's cruelty and warned them that unless they fought bravely their women would be taken prisoners. With their hearts set on victory, their first assault 70 was a success and Khalid was driven out of his tent. Entering the tent, they found Layla, Khalid's wife, and Mujja'ah, one of their chiefs whom Khalid had taken prisoner on his way to `Aqraba and who had been kept in fetters 71  ever since. Layla had charge of him, and they rushed to kill her but they were stopped by Mujja'ah who asked them to spare 72  her life because she had treated him well.

However, when Khalid saw that his men were fighting half-heartedly, he ordered every tribe to fight separately. This fired the warriors' enthusiasm and some sort of rivalry  73 took place. Before long the apostates were defeated and no less them 7000 of them were k, among whom was Nahar Al-Rajjal.

Seeing the massacre 74 , Musaylimah called to his men to take shelter in his own garden, which was heavily fortified 75  . Bara' bin Malik, a valiant  76 warrior, climbed over the wall and jumped down beside the gate. He managed to fling 77 it open before being killed. The Muslims rushed inside and 7000 more of the apostates were killed. Wahshi, once a slave, who had killed Hamzah, the Prophet's uncle, in the battle of Ohod and who had become a true Muslim afterwards, noticed Musaylimah just in front of him. He brandished 78  his spear and thrust 79  it into him. Another fighter struck him with his sword, and the wicked impostor was finished off. Mujja'ah recognized him among the dead. Khalid then sent his cavalry 80  to pursue the retreating infidels, of whom 7000 more were put to the sword. Then Mujja'ah negotiated a peace treaty  81 between Khalid and the people inside the castles. He was a cunning  82  mediator 83  . By dressing the women in men's armour and showing them at the walls, he managed to reach a satisfactory settlement 84 .Only a quarter of the women taken prisoners were not released, but all the spoils 85  were retained. Khalid was keen 86  for the state to own a large orchard 87  in very village and he also wanted his Yamamah expedition to end happily; his second wish he fulfilled  88  by marrying Mujja'ah's daughter. When Abu Bakr was informed of this news he sent him an exceedingly angry message which read: "For shame to get married again, when the blood of 1200 martyrs has not yet dried!"

8. The apostates of Bahrain:

In ancient times Bahrain was made up of all the land that lies on the Arabian Gulf between `Iraq and'Oman. After the death of the Prophet the tribe of'Abdul-Qays remained Muslim, while the other Bahraini tribes became non-Muslim. When Abu Bakr's leader, Al-Ala' bin AI-Hadhrami, was on his way to subdue the rebellion, the disbelievers, under the leadership of Hutam, were besieging the Muslims, who were led by Jarud, in a fortified place called Juwathah. Al-Ala' one night stopped for rest in the desert, and his camels were scared  89 and ran away. His men became desperate 90  as they had neither food nor water. Yet, in the morning, after praying earnestly, they miraculously found water near by and their camels came back to them! Al-'Ala' did not waste time. Soon he arrived at Juwathah, but all his efforts to raise the siege failed. After a month the chance came when the Muslims heard an unusual noise at midnight and realized that their enemies were very drunk. Those who managed to escape from them took refuge on a nearby island called Dareen; Al-'Ala' crossed the shallow 91  Gulf water by using donkeys, horses and camels. The disbelievers were literally annihilated 92  and the booty collected was tremendous. Among the tribesmen who helped Al-Ala' in his campaign 93  was Al-Muthanna bin Harithah Al-Shaybani, a significant leader whom we shall meet again when we deal with the conquest of `Iraq.

9. Laqeet, the impostor of 'Oman:

When the 'Omanis rejected Islam, Jayfar, their ruler, took refuge in the mountains. Meanwhile, Abu Bakr sent two leaders, Huthayfah and 'Arfajah, to subdue `Oman and Mahrah. Later he sent'Ikrimah, the same leader whom Musaylimah had defeated, to help them. The four of them joined forces at Daba in a decisive battle against Laqeet, who was nicknamed  94  "the crowned." At first, it seemed as if Laqeet was going to win the battle, but help came to the Muslims from Bahrain at the critical moment. 10,000 rebels were killed, and much booty was taken by the victors. 

10. The apostates of Mahrah:

The leader who restored Islam to Mahrah was `Ikrimah bin Abu Jahl. On entering the country he met two armies preparing for battle. He persuaded the weaker to embrace Islam and when they agreed Ikrima fought with them against the other army. Soon the battle was decided in favour of the Muslims and lots of booty was sent to Madina.

11. Apostasy in Yemen after the death of AI-Aswad Al-Ansi:

There were three causes for the continued disturbances 95  in Yemen after the murder of Al Aswad Al-Ansi. Firstly, the existence of a lot of factions and the weakness of the central government. Secondly, the disagreement between the Arab and the Persian inhabitants. Thirdly, the hatred between the Arabs of Yemen and the Arabs of Hejaz.

After Al-Ansi, Fayruz was appointed ruler by Abu Bakr owing to his staunch loyalty to Islam. But Qays bin Abd-Yaghuth, a prominent Arab chief, was trying to expel  96  all of Persian descent from his country. He invited their chiefs to a feast 97  and Dathawayh, who arrived early, was assassinated. Fayruz, suspecting a plot, had a narrow escape from death. Then Qays prepared to deport the Persian families by land and sea. Nevertheless, Fayruz managed to come back at the head of an army supplied by the Muslim tribes and ousted Qays from San'a', the seat of government. Later, Qays joined up with a great Yemeni warrior, Amr bin Ma'di Karib, against Fayruz. By this time Abu Bakr's two leaders, Muhajir from the north and 'Ikrimah from the east, were marching hastily towards Yemen. Foreseeing the consequences, `Amr captured Qays and delivered him to Muhajir, who put them both in fetters and sent them to Abu Bakr. Heaping reproaches upon them, the caliph set them free but not before they promised to repent and be good Muslims. With these two chieftains 98  brought low, Yemen could henceforth enjoy peace.

12. Apostasy in Hadhramawt:

The most significant apostate in Hadhramawt was Ash'ath bin Qays. The ruler, Ziyad, once took female prisoners from among the apostates, and while they were passing by Ash'ath's home the women shouted for help. He attacked the ruler, set the women free and took refuge in the Najeer stronghold.

It was not long before the stronghold was besieged from three sides by three Muslim leaders, Muhajir, Ikrimah and Ziyad, who blocked the arrival of provisions to Ash'ath by the three roads which led to the castle. Finding escape impossible, the besieged people cut short the hair on the front of their head, which was a sign of determination to fight till death, and then dashed  99 desperately at the Muslims. Discovering that his opponents were invincible, Ash'ath resorted to treachery 100 He negotiated with 'Ikrimah to surrender the castle on condition that nine of his near relatives should be spared. Muhajir asked for a list of the names, and Ash'ath made a fatal error when he forgot to put his own name on the list. The castle surrendered and the nine people were spared. Every man in the castle was killed, and 1000 women were taken prisoners.

As Ash'ath's name was not on the list, Muhajir wanted to puthim to the sword. But 'Ikrimah intervened, and he was sent to Madina as a prisoner of war. All along the road he was denounced by everyone and called bad names. On promising that he would repent and be a good Muslim he was set free and given his fiancee, Abu Bakr's ownsister, Umm Farwah. Later, when Abu Bakr was lying on his death bed he regretted that he had not put him to death. However, Ash'ath got married, stayed in Madina, and during the conquest of Syria and `Iraq fought bravely and recovered his former prestige.

The conquest of 'Iraq

The purposes of the conquest:

  1. Though the wars of apostasy had come to an end, Abu Bakr wanted to be sure that the vanquished 1 tribes would not think of retaliation. The best way to ensure this was to direct their thoughts towards conquests outside the Arabian peninsula  2 .

  2. Along the borders between Arabia and 'Iraq there were numerous Arab tribes leading a nomad life and forming a sort of buffer 3  state between the Persians and the Romans. Abu Bakr hoped that these tribesmight accept Islam and help their brethren 4  in spreading it.

  3. Some of these northern tribes had replaced their nomad  5  society with a rural  6 one. The Persian taxation laws were arbitrary  8  and oppressive; Abu Bakr believed that they might be persuaded to help the Muslims, who sought to release them from injustice.

  4. Arabia was surrounded by two gigantic  9  empires, and it was unsafe to remain passive with these two for midable powers on its borders. Abu Bakr hoped that by attacking `Iraq and Syria he might remove 10 the danger from his borders.

  5. After the heavy defeat which the Romans inflicted on the Persians, the latter were in a state of confusion. In four years, nine kings ascended  11  the throne. By starting with Iraq, Abu Bakr hoped that the conquest of Persia might be possible and even easy.

  6. Iraq and Syria were rich in resources 12  and had moderate climates.' Iraq was called "the paradise of the earth", and this worked like a charm on the minds of the Bedouins, whose pre-Islamic was merely a series of raids 13 .

  7. We have already heard something of the Bahraini leader Muthanna, who helped Al-Hadhrami to subdue his own native apostates. Muthanna was not satisfied with what he had done, but marched northwards along the coast of the Gulf until he reached the borders of `Iraq. In order to invade the Persian Empire he needed Abu Bakr's consent. So, he travelled to Madina where, after taking his counsellors' advice, particularly that of Khalid bin AI-Waleed, Abu Bakr officially appointed Muthanna commander in the Arabian Gulf area.


1. The Battle of the Chains

No sooner had Muthanna left Madina than he was joined by Khalid bin AI-Waleed at the head of an army 10,000 strong. When the two joined forces at the borders near the delta. Khalid sent a letter to Hormuz, the Persian governor and leader, offering him three options:

  1. to embrace Islam; 

  2. to pay tribute; 

  3. to fight.

Hormuz was an intolerable man. He was disliked by the 'Iraqis who used to say of him: "There is no infidel more wicked than Hormuz ." Yet in Persia he was regarded as a nobleman of the highest rank. This was shown by his beret 14 which was evaluated  15 at 100,000 dirhems.

 Getting no reply, Khalid divided his army into three regiments 16  of 6,000 men each. The first day Muthanna marched to Hafeer; the second day 'Adiyy bin Hatim followed; and the third day Khalid found Hormuz occupying the water springs.

Hormuz wanted to cut the fight short by murdering 17 Khalid treacherously. So, no sooner were the two armies engaged in battle than he challenged Khalid to fight a duel. Khalid at once dismounted 18  and before long his foe 19 was killed and Khalid cut off his head and held it by the forelock 20 . The Persians dashed up at full gallop 21  to prevent their captain's death, but the Muslims were ready for them. The Persians took to their heels and a massacre followed. Among the spoils sent to Madina were Hormoz's beret and an elephant. The huge animal was publicly admired by old and young, and then returned to 'Iraq to be made use of in the forthcoming war. As for the warriors' booty, each gained about 1000 dirhems as well as the plundered 22  arms.

The Battle of the Chains was so called because the Persian troops were tied together by chains. The heap 23  of chains which was collected from the battlefield amounted to a camel load weighing 1000 pounds.

2. The battle of Mathar

Muthanna pursued the retreating 24  Persians for a long way, when suddenly he saw reinforcements coming to Hormuz from Mada'in, the capital. He sent news of the situation to Khalid and halted opposite the Persians at Mathar. Qarun, the Persian leader, wanted to fight Muthanna alone before the Muslims could come to his aid, but he was too late. As soon as Khalid was informed, he hastened to Mathar and engaged the enemy although he was ill-prepared . 25  Qarun, Qabath and Anoshjan, the three enemy leaders, were all killed. Anything that the Muslim fighters could plunder in battle was kept by them and one fifth of the spoils was sent to Madina.

3. The battle of Walajah

Being weakened by two successive defeats, Ardasheer, the Persian king, asked for the help of his Arab allies. A huge army was collected from the tribe of Bakr bin Wa'il, and in order to further restore the Persian forces, another army was also recruited 26  The commander-in-chief this time was Bahman and the site of the battle was Walajah.

Khalid weighed up 27  the situation and worked out his strategy 28 . He left two battalions in ambush 29 , so as to attack the enemy from the rear  30 at the right moment. The battle was furious and at the start it was doubtful if the Muslims would Win; but when the two battalions appeared, the fight was decided and the booty was unbelievable. Khalid's remark was: "Behold the incredible heap of spoils! We have attained two goals! Victory in God's cause, and amazing wealth."

4. The battle of Ollays

This was the fiercest battle Khalid fought in 'Iraq. As the Banu Bakr wanted to avenge their defeat at Walajah, they invited all the Christians of' Iraq to oppose Khalid at Ollays. Also, Ardasheer gave orders to Bahman to lend them full support. However, because the king was ill, Bahman left his forces to visit him, leaving Jaban as leader in his place. Jaban was given strict orders not to engage the Muslims unless he was obliged to do so. The battle flared up and both sides fought patiently and bravely. When Banu Bakr's line began to waver Jaban was forced into battle.

 Expecting help from Bahman, the Persians proved stubborn  31  and persistent. But because of the king's death, Bahman was unable to leave and no aid arrived at Ollays. The fight was so fierce that Khalid vowed if ever he won the battle, he would kill as many of his enemies as would make the nearby river flow 32  with blood. So, when in the end, the Muslims got the upper hand, Khalid gave his men orders to take prisoners and send them to him. The river was diverted from its course, and some historians say that 70,000 non Muslims were put to the sword; but the blood did not flow. It was then suggested that the river revert to its normal course and this made the blood flow so Khalid's vow was fulfilled.

Maneeshya, a neighbouring town whose inhabitants took an active part in the fight, was pulled down and all the people's possessions were taken as booty. Each knight's share on that day amounted to 1500 dirhems. When Abu Bakr heard the details from Jandal, who was sent to Madina with the spoils, he said: All the women of the world are too barren  33  to give birth to a man like Khalid!"

5. The surrender of Al-Heerah

 Al-Heerah had been the capital of the `Iraqi Arabs since the second century of the Christian era. After the battle of Ollays all the rebels took refuge there. Its Persian governor, Azathba, awaited Khalid's arrival anxiously outside the city, and his son diverted 34  the course of the river in an attempt to prevent the Muslims from attacking the city by using Maneeshyan ships. Khalid actually tried to convey  35 his men by ship but failed because the water was too shallow. So, at the head of a cavalry detachment, he surprised the governor's son and reverted the water to its normal course. Seeing what had happened to his son, Azathba ran away leaving the city to its fate 36 . Refusing to accept Islam or to pay tribute, the inhabitants resisted attack, but the fortresses were stormed 37 . Five delegates met Khalid to negotiate peace terms. According to the terms of the agreement, they had to pay the Muslims 190,000 dirhems every year. However Khalid refused to sign the agreement unless Karamah, the sister of one of the delegates, was delivered to Shuwayl, an obscure Muslim warrior to whom the Prophet had promised the woman if AI-Heerah was ever taken by the Muslims. It was a very difficult condition because Karamah was then 80 years old. However, Karamah said: "Never mind! I will go to him! He is a fool who saw me when I was a beautiful girl. He thinks that beauty is permanent. Now I am old and he will accept a ransom instead."

When Shuwayl saw Karamah he agreed to take a ransom, but he refused to accept less than 1000 dirhems, which he was willingly 38 given. Later he regretted his decision because his friends made fun of him for accepting such a small ransom. Then he asked Khalid for a larger sum, explaining that he had not known a number greater than a thousand. Khalid laughed and said: "That is OK ! You meant one thing but God meant something else!"

 After the peace treaty was concluded, similar treaties were signed between Khalid and other dignitaries 39 ; and before long all the regions between the Arabian Gulf and Al-Heerah, which extended as far as the Tigris, passed under Muslim control.

6. The surrender of Al-Anbar

 Al-Heerah was a convenient place for Khalid's headquarters. He remained there for a whole year without attempting to conquer Mada'in. In fact, he was following the instructions of Abu Bakr, who for bade him to leave Al-Heerah unless his comrade, `lyadh bin Ghanm, arrived after subduing Doomah, which was a long way to the south.

 But Khalid grew impatient and began to call it "a womanly year" as he was anxious to continue his conquests. He wanted to spread Islam everywhere. So he looked westwards along the banks of the Euphrates and saw Al-Anbar. Leaving Qa'qa' in Al-Heerah, he marched quickly to the city and lay siege to it. But, as it was surrounded by a ditch  40 , it could not be stormed. What could he do? He checked the ditch, and across the narrowest  41 part of it he killed some lean camels and made a bridge of them. Soon the walls were scaled and the gates were broken open. To avoid another massacre, the Persian governor, Sheerzad, negotiated peace. He had to forfeit all his possessions but was allowed to leave at the head of a cohort 42  of cavalry.

7. The surrender of `Ayn Al-Tamr

 It took Khalid three days to cover the distance between Al-Anbar and `Ayn AI-Tamr. There were Arabs and Persians waiting for him. The Arabs advised the Persians not to take part in the war as the Persians were not experienced at fighting Arabs - a piece of advice which the Persians thankfully accepted.

As soon as Khalid arrived, 'Oqqah, the Arab chief, challenged him to a duel - a challenge which Khalid readily accepted. It took Khalid only a few minutes to overpower 43  `Oqqah, who was then taken captive. Seeing the consequences of the Arabs' obstinacy  44 , the Persians fled and the city gates were opened.

8. The surrender of Doomat AI-Jandal

Doomat Al-Jandal is a strategically important place which lies about 300 miles to the south of 'Ayn Al -Tamr. It forms a juncture 45  between Arabia,'Iraq and Syria. This is why Abu Bakr sent'Iyadh bin Ghanm at the head of an army to subjugate it. If it were not in the hands of the Muslims, their rear might be threatened at any time by the insurgents. `Iyadh spent a whole year trying unsuccessfully to subdue Doomat Al Jandal. Then he sent a message to Khalid asking for help. Khalid was overjoyed  46 to receive the message, and the next day he set off southwards. He covered the distance in ten days, only to find 'Iyadh besieging the fortified city and at the same time besieged by his enemies.

As soon as 'Okaydir, the governor of the city, heard of Khalid's arrival, he advised his allies to negotiate peace. His advice being rejected, he went to Khalid and disgracefully surrendered himself. He still remembered the lesson which Khalid had taught him during the life of the Prophet. There are two accounts of'Okaydir's end. One of them says that he was killed, and the other that he was sent to Abu Bakr, who kept him in jail until the caliphate of 'Omar set him free.

 As for the allies, a large number of them remained outside the city walls because there was no room for them inside. When Khalid attacked them, he killed Judi, their chieftain, first. Then he brought the captives to the city gate and killed them. They were so numerous that the gate was blocked by their bodies. Then he gave orders for the gate to be broken down. All the warriors inside were put to the sword, and the women were auctioned. He chose for himself the pretty daughter of the murdered Judi, with whom he stayed in Doomaat AI-Jandal for some time.

9. The Battle of Foradh

Though the Arab tribes were defeated many times, they did not stop plotting against Khalid. This forced him to march northwards to deal with their incessant plots and intrigues. The Banu Taghlib were dealt their severest blow when they were surrounded from three sides and their army completely annihilated.Having finished with the rebel tribes, Khalid marched on till he reached the border between Syria and 'Iraq. He camped there for a whole month while the Roman army was just opposite him across the border. Eventually the Romans felt they could no longer sit passively while the Muslims challenged them to their faces. They sent a message to Khalid inquiring whether he or they should cross the Euphrates. Khalid invited the Romans to cross, and then surprised them by his onslaught 47  before they could finish crossing and take rest. Three well-known Muslim historians, Al-Tabari, Ibn AI-Atheer and Ibn Khaldun, agree that about 100,000 enemy soldiers fell in this battle.

10. Khalid performs the pilgrimage secretly

After the battle of Foradh, which took place in 12 A.H, Khalid decided to take some rest before at tacking Mada'in. During this time he felt a great desire to perform the pilgrimage. Yet he was afraid that during his absence from `Iraq, the malicious tribes would seize the opportunity and rise against his deputies 48 . So, he let the army march slowly back to Al-Heerah and, pretending all the time that he was in the rear, departed secretly to Mecca accompanied by a few of his attendants. It is not certain whether the Emir of the Pilgrimage that year was Abu Bakr or `Omar. Anyhow, Khalid managed to perform the pilgrimage, and to go back to 'Iraq and enter Al-Heerah with the returning army, without being noticed by anyone. 

The conquest of Syria

Khalid bin Sa'id:

The marvellous victories of Khalid bin AI-Waleed in `Iraq encouraged Abu Bakr to send armies to conquer Syria. The Arabs had a good knowledge of this country because of their continual land trade with it. There were two main reasons why they decided to wage a daring 1  war against what was then the greatest empire in the world:

a) the spreading of Islam, and
b) the wealth of Syria.

When Abu Bakr sent Khalid bin Sa'id at the head of an army to Tayma', just near the Syrian border, he did not intend to invade the country; it was only a defensive measure. But when he received letters from Khalid bin Sa'id, who longed for military glory in Syria as great as that of Khalid bin Al-Waleed in `Iraq, asking for permission to proceed, he could not stand the temptation and gave the signal which started a new holy war.

In his first engagement with the Romans, Khalid bin Sa'id managed to win the battle and occupy the Roman camps. Tasting victory against "the people of the yellow complexion", as they were usually described by the Arabs, Khalid pushed forward till he reached the shores of the Dead Sea, where he defeated another Roman regiment near Qastal.

Now, the Romans realized that the Muslims were not merely indulging  2  in temporary raiding  3 , as they used to do before, but that they intended to conquer and stay. So they sent a huge army led by Bahan, who was well-known for his clever military tactics 4 . He withdrew intentionally before Khalid, who forgot Abu Bakr's piece of advice to be always wary in his war with the Romans. Bahan's retreat stopped when he was in the vicinity of Tiberias. There he managed to trap the Muslims and kill Khalid's son, Sa'id, who was lagging behind 6  with a group of his men.

When the news of his son's murder came to Khalid's ears he became so depressed that he left the battlefield and fled at the head of a battalion, until he was very near to Madina. His army was left under the leadership 7  of 'Ikrimah bin Abu Jahl, the great leader of the wars of apostasy, who proved skilful at manoeuvering  8  and managed to withdraw intact. As for Khalid bin Sa'id, he stayed at Thul-Marwah and was forbidden by Abu Bakr to enter the capital.


The Battle of Yarmuk:

 The bad fortune which befell 9  Ibn Sa'id did not make Abu Bakr despair. He ordered the recruitment of new troops and immediately sent aid to 'Ikrimah, who was waiting near the Roman !order. The total aid which `Ikrimah received amounted to 30,000 men. `Amr bin AI-'As had to proceed to Palestine, Abu `Obaydah bin AI-Jarrah to Damascus, Shurahbeel bin Hasnah to Jordan and Yazeed bin Abu Sufyan to Busra.

 When Heraclius, the Roman emperor, heard the news, he mustered 10  about 240,000 troops. Theodore, his brother, led the huge army and proceeded to Waqusah, some 40 miles to the south of Yarmuk, a tributary of the Jordan. He camped beside the left bank of the river on a spacious plateau 11  which was surrounded on three sides by high mountains.

 At first the Muslim leaders acted separately; but when they realized the imminent 12 danger, they sent for advice from the caliph, and meanwhile consulted the shrewd  13 leader Amr bin Al- 'As. Both Abu Bakr and Amr recommended that the Muslims should unite. So, the four armies marched and camped on the right bank of the Yarmuk, just opposite the Romans.

 Two months passed without any action on either side because each was afraid of the other. Then Abu Bakr got bored and sent a message to Khalid bin Al Waleed in Al-Heerah ordering him to leave for Yarmuk. Khalid was unwilling to leave as he was hoping to conquer Mada'in very soon, but he had to carry out the caliph's orders. He chose his men, and at the head of some 9,000 men left 'Iraq for Syria.

He set out towards Doomat Al-Jandal, then went along the Sirhan valley. When he reached Qoraqir, he decided to take a longer and more dangerous route so as to avoid any confrontation with the enemy. Following the advice of his guide, Rafi bin `Ameerah, he made his camels go without water for a number of days, then he let them drink their fill. He tied up their ears and lips in order to prevent any evaporation 14  of water. Then he crossed the desert, and after five days arrived in Palmyra, just behind the armies of his opponents. Soon he joined his colleagues, who were anxiously waiting for him at Yarmuk.

 Khalid's arrival was offset  15  by the arrival of Bahan, the Roman conqueror of Khalid bin Sa'id. Another month passed and still the Muslim emirs were acting separately, as Abu Bakr had not appointed an overall commander-in-chief. The Romans began to prepare for battle, and Khalid called for a council of war 16  First he let the other leaders speak, and when his turn came, he spoke zealously  17  and suggested a genuine union of the five armies without which, he said, no victory could be achieved. Regarding the commander-in-chief, he pointed out that each leader might be given the post for one day, and that he himself would assume it first.

 They unanimously agreed to the suggestion, and Khalid divided the armies into companies each headed by a competent captain. Besides, there were people whose task was to encourage the fighters and raise their morale; one of them was Abu Sufyan, the Prophet's chief opponent in the battle of Badr. While the Muslims were getting ready to fight against the Romans one of them said, "Hownumerous the Romans are, and how few the Muslims are!" Khalid got angry and said, "The reverse  18  is true! It is victory that makes the troops numerous, and defeat that makes them few!"

 Such an encouraging leader, and the enthusiasm of the Muslims to fight in the cause of God so as to attain Paradise, combined to make the men brave and even inspired the women to take part in the war.

 Among the Romans there was a captain called George, who had contacted Khalid before the battle and promised to defect. When the fight started, he was in the van, and when he reached the Muslims'lines Khalid gave way and let him pass through. The other Romans thought that George needed help, so they attacked the Muslims fiercely, which made them retreat.''Ikrimah bin Abu Jahl was at the head of a company of 400 strong. Seeing what had happened, he vowed martyrdom  19 or victory and shouted: "Oh, that I should have fought the Prophet in so many battles only to run away from infidels!" He advanced, followed by his son Amr, Harith bin Hisham, Dhirar bin Al-Azwar and the rest of the company, and made the enemy retreat. As for George, having embraced Islam and said his prayers in Khalid's tent, he fought with the Muslims against his countrymen. In spite of the Romans' heroic fighting, at sunset their lines began to waver and then broke. In order to cut the battle short, and because the Romans were besieged from all sides, Khalid allowed the enemy's cavalry to escape. This being accomplished, he tightened  20  the siege on the infantry. Realizing that there was no chance of escape, the Romans began to retreat, only to fall into the river. Muslim historians estimate that between 100,000 and 120,000 enemy troops died at Yarmuk. With them about 3,000 Muslims also died, among whom were `Ikrimah and his son `Amr. They were brought to Khalid in Theodore's tent and their heads laid on his lap. He wiped their faces gently with a damp 21  cloth and dripped22 water in their mouths hoping they might revive, but his attempts were futile and both of them died. As for Abu Sufyan, whose loud voice had urged many a Muslim to war, he had one of his eyes pierced by an arrow, which was pulled out by a skilled man called Abu Hathmah.

 It should be mentioned here that the news of Abu Bakr's death arrived while the battle of Yarmuk was raging. On becoming caliph, the first thing `Omar bin al-Khattab did was to send a message to Syria deposing Khalid from the general leadership and appointing Abu `Obaydah to the post. Yet, when the latter received the message, he concealed  23  it from everyone and did not show it to Khalid till the Muslims advanced from Yarmuk and laid siege to Damascus. Khalid's remark at the new caliph's order was: "I am fighting in the cause of God, not for 'Omar bin al-Khattab."


The end of the Roman rule in Syria:

When Heraclius heard of his brother's defeat at Yarmuk he left Homs, the imperial headquarters, and moved northwards. There he mustered a new army, which was met by the Muslims and also defeated.

As for the Muslims, they first took Jordan from the Romans and then laid siege to Damascus, which was heavily fortified. The inhabitants resisted the Muslims from behind their walls, and at the same time urged the emperor to send them reinforcements. Heraclius made one attempt to help them, but finding it futile stopped all further attempts. History books still quote the emperor's words of farewell, "Good-bye, Syria! I do not think we shall meet again."

 It was not long before Damascus opened two of its gates to the Muslims, one forced by Khalid, and the other opened peacefully by Abu `Obaydah. With the capital in the hands of the Muslims, and wit the Romans driven out for ever, Syria became an Islamic country.

Compilation of the Qur'an

It was stated in Chapter III that 1200 Muslims were killed in the battle of 'Aqraba, among whomwere committing the Qur'an to memory. `Omar bin al Khattab, whose brother Zayd was among the dead, thought deeply of what might happen if wars continued and more such people were killed. He reached the conclusion that if the Qur'an was to be preserved, it ought to be compiled 1  into one volume. At that time it was scattered among the companions of the Prophet, with each preserving part of it. Methods of preservation differed. Some had it written on parchment 2 ; others on palm branches stripped of leaves; a third group on shoulder bones; and a fourth on stone tablets; a large number also learnt it by heart. If many of those who had memorized it were killed, then a part of the Holy Book might disappear. So ''Omar went to the caliph, who was then sitting in the Prophet's grand Mosque. He discussed his idea with him, but Abu Bakr rejected it because it had not been approved by the Prophet. A lengthy 3  debate followed, after which Abu Bakr was convinced that ''Omar was right.

He called for Zayd bin Thabit, a youth of perfect character, and commissioned him to compile the Qur'an into one volume. At first Zayd objected for the same reason which had made Abu Bakr protest. Then he acquiesced, but felt that the commission was very onerous 4 . He had to collect every verse and every chapter from those who owned them and then classify them in the order which was prescribed by the Prophet .

 After Zayd accomplished the tedious task and had organised the Qur'an into one book, he submitted the precious collection to Abu Bakr, who kept it in his possession until the end of his life. During 'Omar's caliphate it was placed in the custody 5  of Abu Bakr's daughter, Hafsah, the Prophet's wife. Finally in `Othman's days, when different readers began to recite it differently, the caliph had several copies of it made and distributed them to the various countries which comprised the Islamic world. The modern edition of the Qur'an is the `Othman copy, which is considered the standard to which every other copy should conform.

Abu Bakr's compilation of the Qur'an is regarded by many people as his most significant feat, more significant even than the wars of apostasy and the conquest of 'Iraq and Syria. `Ali bin Abi Talib used to say: "May God have mercy upon Abu Bakr! He is worthy of being superbly rewarded, because he was unique in compiling the Qur'an."

The End

Abu Bakr died in the year 13A.H. (634A.D.) after suffering from fever for 15 days during which he gave instructions that ''Omar bin al-Khattab should lead the prayers. There is a story which accuses the Jews of putting poison in his food, but it lacks authenticity. When he died, he was years old and his caliphate had lasted for only two years and three months. During his illness he refused to consult a doctor; and when he was asked to do so, he said that he had consulted God, and that he was in His hands. All the time he was thinking of Islam and its future stability. After much meditation he decided to confer the caliphate on ''Omar bin al-Khattab. He consulted many of the well-known companions of the Prophet. Most of them approved of the choice, though they pointed out that ''Omar bin al Khattab was rather rough. Some of them, among whom was Talhah bin `Obaydillah, objected to his appointment. Abu Bakr got angry and accused them of wanting to become caliphs themselves. He called `Qthman and put in writing his desire to choose ''Omar as his successor. While he was dictating, he fainted  1  but 'Othman completed the will on his own. When Abu Bakr recovered he was pleased with 'Othman's initiative and approved the will. Then he let it be read to the congregation, who accepted it and swore allegiance to `Omar in the Grand Mosque. He watched what was going on from inside his house, being helped by his wife, Asma bint 'Omays.

Then he called `Omar and advised him on how to lead his people, ending with these words: "If you follow my advice, nothing unknown will be more acceptable to you than death; but if you reject it, nothing unknown will be more frightening than death." Before he died, Abu Bakr gave back everything he had taken from the public treasury during his caliphate. It is said that he did not bequeath  2 any money at all. He left only a servant, a camel and a garment. His orders were that after his death the garment should be delivered to his successor. On seeing it ''Omar wept and said: "Abu Bakr has made the task of his successor very difficult."

 Before his death he asked how the Prophet was dressed when he was laid in his coffin 3  . Being informed that he was dressed in three garments, Abu Bakr asked that his two old garments be used. A third new one was also bought. He disliked extravagance 4 , and stressed that the living were more important than the dead. His last words were: "0 God! Let me die as a Muslim; and let me join the company of the righteous!"

 His wife, Asma', and his son, Abdul Rahman, bathed him, and he was buried in `Aishah's rooms, just beside the Prophet. First, `Omar led the burial prayer in the mosque, then he, ''Othman, Talhah and Abdul Rahman supervised the burial. His head was laid just near the Prophet's shoulders.

The inhabitants of Madina were deeply affected by Abu Bakr's death; they were stunned 5  by it just as they were when the Prophet died. 'Ali bin Abi Talib hastened to his house, weeping, and said: "May God have mercy upon you! You were the first to accept Islam; the staunchest in belief; the closest helper of the Prophet; the firmest defender of Islam, and the closest in conduct to the Prophet. May God recompense you on behalf of Islam, the Prophet and the Muslims! You believed the Prophet when everybody disbelieved him; you were generous with him when everybody else was mean, you stood by his side when others let him down; and God has called you in His book The Truthful. You were a bulwark for Islam, and a thunderbolt for the disbelievers. You were never a coward  6 , but were as steadfast as a mountain. As the Prophet said, you were weak in body but strong in faith. You were humble in soul but great in God's eyes. You were venerable 7  in the world and revered among the believers. You were unprejudiced; the weak were strong before you till you redeemed them from oppression; and the strong were weak before you until they abstained from oppression. May God not deprive us of your blessing; nor may He let us go astray after you have departed from this life."

Thus came to an end the life of the man who could accomplish in a few years what others could not do in decades; the man who stood up bravely to an internal revolution, and valiantly opposed the two greatest empires of his time; the man who was simple in his outward appearance but great in his inward attitude; the man whose spirit was as magnificent as that of angels; the man who first compiled the Qur'an, for which he deserves from all its readers, sympathetic prayers and hearty blessings.


1 similar    adj. same, nearly like
2 temperament  n nature of a person.
3 lenient       adj. not severe.
4 merciful      adj.  lenient.
5 solitude   n being alone.
6 abstain v not to do something.
7 establish v set up.
8 complexion    n colour of the skin on your face
9 slim     adj. gracefully thin.
10 wise     adj. having intelligence and common sense
11 solemn adj. grave.
12 seldom    adv. rarely.
13 polytheistic  adj.  worshipping more than one God.
14 countrymen   n persons of one's own country.
15 landlady   n woman who owns land or houses.
16 lodging     n rented room.
17 friendship  n state of being friends.
18 reveal    v Inspire.
19 validity  n truth, correctness.
20 idolatry  n  worship of idols.
21 enthusiasm   n great interest.
22 worshipping  n praising and honouring.
23 suspicion     n lack of trust.
24  drapery  n trade of selling cloth.
25 successful   adj. having gained a position.
26 trade    n buying and selling.
27 customer    n buyer. 
28 preach  v explain a religion and advise others to adopt it.
29 ardently    adv. with warm emotion.
30 infidel    n a person with no belief in a specific religion.
31 torturing    n inflicting pain on someone as a punishment.
32 slave  n person who belongs to and  works for someone.
33 intervene  v come in between.
34 release  v set  free.
35  brutally   adv. cruelly.
36 whip    v  hit with a piece of leather.
37 tribe  n group of people ruled by a chief.
38 refuge  n place to hide.
39 shelter   n  refuge.
40 inhabit    v to live in.
41 warring  adj. fighting.
42 journey     n trip.
43 experienced   adj. skilled.
44 merchant     n trader.
45 round trip   n trip to a destination and back.
46 scoff at  v make fun of in a nasty way.
47 sanity      n being reasonable, mental health.
48 heavenly adj. from heaven.
49 revelation   n knowledge given to the mind and soul by God.
50 ruthless   adj.  cruel, without pity.
51 emigrate   v leave a country.
52 support  v help.
53 anxiously   adv. with a strong wish to do something.
54 besiege  v surround by fighting men.
55 swordsman  n person who fights well with a sword.
56 plot   v draw up a wicked plan.
57 slip   v go quietly.
58 depart v leave.
59 trick   v deceive.
60 web  n net spun by spiders.
61 fruitless adj. producing no result.
62 latter  n second mentioned of two.
63 canopy n small roof over a platform.
64 erect v put up.
65 entrust v give someone the responsibility for something.
66 mantle   n cloak.
67 earnest   adj. serious.
68 courteously adv. respectfully.
69 disbeliever   n infidel.
70 archer    n person who shoots with a bow and arrow.
71 staunch adj.  firm.
72 wage    v fight (a war.)
73 era    n long period of history.
74 vizier    n minister in some Muslim country.
75 attempt    v try.
76 stronghold   n place considered as a center for a certain activity  or belief.
77 negotiator  n person who discusses to try to reach an agreement.
78 conquer   v win land by force.
79 convince  v   persuade.
80 subdue    v bring under one's power.
81 delegate  n person who represents others at a meeting.
82 allegiance   n faithfulness.
83 vital     adj. very important.
84 household   n family or people who live together in the same house.
85 everlasting   adj. going on for ever.
86 summarize    v make a brief account of something which is long.
87 recitation   n something recited from memory.
88 fitter    adj. more suitable.
89 task        n work which has to be done.
90 emphatic     adj. strong.


1 foundation     n  base. 
2 far-flung       adj.  spread over a great distance.
3 enlightened  adj.  free from ignorance.
4 striking    adj.  remarkable.
5  sub-tribe     n   under-tribe
6 genealogist     n  one who knows families 
7 trustworthy adj.  which can be depended upon.
8 efficiency   n  ability to produce the required result easily.
9  release     v  set free.
10 unwavering   adj. not hesitating.
11  attractive  adj.  pleasing.
12 sunken   adj.   deep.
13  forehead   n  part of the head between the eyes and the hair.
14 endowed with        adj.  having some good quality.
15  wide     adj.  large.
16  acquaintances    n   persons whom one knows.
17  tender-hearted      adj.  kind.
18 compassionate    adj.  merciful.
19  sympathize   v show a feeling of pity or sorrow.
20  pity    v   feel sympathy for someone.
21  weep        v   cry.
22  captive    n  prisoner of war.
23 ransom     n  payment asked before a hostage is set free.
24 kind-hearted   adj. tender-hearted.
25  win over    v  persuade by argument.
26  feud   n  continuous enmity.
27  rabbi  n  Jewish religious teacher.
28  undoubtedly  adv.  with no doubt. with certitude.
29 Old Testament   n  first section of the Bible.
30 slap  v  hit with the hand flat.
31 shouting  adj. speaking aloud
32 contract   n  legal agreement.
33  cut off     v   separate.
34  agreement  n   written statement between two parties ac accepting certain conditions.
35  peaceful co-existence n  living side by side without making war.
36 characteristic   n  special typical feature.
37 embrace  v   adopt.
38  meticulously   adv. carefully paying attention to details.
39  launch  v  give a Start to.
40  for its sake  n  for its advantage.
41 fiercest  adj. most ferocious, most violent.
42  waver    v  hesitate.
43 spiritually adv.  dealing with the soul.
44  uplifted   adj.   given a feeling of happiness.
45 eclipsed   adj.   made to appear dull by comparison, outshone.
46  steadfastly  adv.   firmly.
47  illustrate   v   show.
48 wager  n  bet.
49  incessantadj.  continuous.
50 prophesying   v  predicting, telling the coming of a future event by any   procedure.
51 rout   v  defeat
52  ironically  adv.   in a mocking  way.
53 significant  adj.  important, full of meaning.
54  impartiality  n  fairness.
55 redeem   v   buy freedom of.
56  oppression n   ruling unjustly.
57  disobedient  adv.   paying no attention to orders.
58  differentiate  v   make a difference.
59 nationality  n quality of belonging to a nation.
60 aware   adj.   knowing.
61  internationalism    n  the principle that nations should work together.
62  conversion   n  the turning of a person to another religion.
63  defection    n going over to the side of the enemy.
64  esteemed  adj. highly respected.
65 reverence   n  great respect.
66  respect   n  esteem.
67 obstinacy    n resistance.
68  apostate  n  a man who has denied his religion.
69  burden   n  load.
70  shed    v  lose, throw off.
71  huge   adj. big in size.
72 vow   v make a solemn promise.
73  rebel    n person who fights against the person in charge.
74 tremendous  adj. enormous, very big.
75  firmness    n solidity.
76 outstanding  adj.   excellent.
77 thoughtfully  adv.  with a lot of attention.
78 counsellor    n  adviser.
79  clemency    n  mercy.
80  at stake  adj.   in danger, at risk.
81 insurgent    n    rebel.
82  repent   v  be very sorry for something.
83  implicitly   adv.   without questioning.
84  deliberation   n   debate, discussion.
85  harsh   adj.  sharp, hard, cruel.
86 angrily ad   v  in an annoyed way.
87  right path       n  just way.
88  congregation     n  gathering of people.
89  praising     adj. v  expressing strong approval.
90 stress      v  emphasize.
91  whole-heartedly adv. completely.


1 bewildered adj.  puzzled.
2 crisis      n critical moment. 
3 stretcher   n portable bed with handles at each end for carrying sick people
4 funeral    n ceremony when a dead person is buried.
5 elaborate    adj.  very detailed.
6 unanimously adv. all agreeing.
7 flock     v move in a group.
8 oath    n  promise to be faithful.
9 separatism   n  political ideal of separating from a large country.
10 contribution   n money etc... given to help something.
11 genuinely   adv.  truly.
12 cancel   v stop something which has been planned.
13 retaliate    v  attack back.
14 mount      v  climb on.
15 endeavour    n  attempt.
16 stealthily   adv.  secretly.
17 harm    n damage.
18 booty   n treasure captured in war.
19 prelude n  something which introduces something more important.
20 urging    n  pushing to do something. encouraging.
21 northwards  adj. towards the North.
22 neighbourhood  n area around a point or place.
23 nuisance  n something annoying.
24 abolition   n  act of cancelling.
25 gather  v  come together.
26 pursue  v chase.
27 ensue    v  follow.
28 inflate    v  blow up.
29 rearrange  v set out in order again.
30 confiscate  v  take away someone's possessions as a punishment.
31 headquarters n  main offices.
32 subjugate   v subdue, conquer.
33  warning   n notice of danger.
34 get rid of    v  make oneself free from.
35 prominent   adj. famous.
36 dissident    n one who does not agree with the state.
37 magnanimous adj. very generous.
38  reinforcement     n  new soldiers! to support others already fighting.
39  uttering      adj. speaking.
40  battlefield    n  site of a battle.
41  flee        v run away.
42  avenging   adv.  paying someone back for a crime.
43  betray       v be disloyal.
44  scatter  cause a group to run in all directions.
45  remnant    n small part that remains.
46  hasten    v  move or act with speed.
47  powerful   adj.   having great power.
48  taunt   v  jeer at someone sarcastically.
49 perplexed  adj.  puzzled.
50  inquiry       n  formal investigation.
51 scandalous  adj. disgraceful, shocking.
52  withdraw  v  pull back.
53  petition    v  make an official request.
54 summon    v  call. 
55  rusty    adj.  (of metals) covered with a reddish coating caused by water or rain.
56 threateningly adv.  with a warning.
57 disgraceful adj.  which you should be ashamed of.
58  gloat   v take pleasure at someone's misfortune.
59  skill    n ability to do something expertly.
60 dispatch      v  send.
61 pug-nosed  adj.  with a short, snub nose.
62 claim        v assert, state.
63 rudiment    n simple elementary fact.
64 opportunist    n person who takes advantage of circu- mstances.
65  luxuries     n things that are pleasing to have, but not necessary.
66  dwell on v  think a lot about.
67 nonsensical  adj.  absurd.
68  flare        v to suddenly break out.
69 eloquent    adj.  able to make good and persuasive speeches.
70  assault  n  attack.
71 fetter         n chain.
72  spare           v keep from harming.
73  rivalry       n competition.
74  massacre   n killing of a lot of people.
75 fortified     adj.  made strong.
76 valiant     adj.  brave.
77  fling open   v open suddenly or violently.
78 brandish    v wave about.
79 thrust        v push energetically.
80  cavalry       n  soldiers who fight on horseback.
81 treaty     n agreement between peoples.
82  cunning   adj.  clever.
83  mediator    n person who tries to make two opponents agree.
84 settlement    n agreement over a dispute.
85  spoils        n booty.
86 keen       adj.  eager.
87 orchard      n  piece of land with fruit trees.
88  fulfill    v complete.
89 scared    adj.  frightened.
90  desperate  adj. hopeless.
91  shallow    adj.  not deep.
92  annihilated    adj.  completely destroyed.
93 campaign       n  organized military movement.
94  nicknamed     adj. given a name used instead of the real name.
95 disturbance   n  trouble.
96  expel       v  to force out.
97  feast      n splendid meal.
98  chieftain     n leader of a tribe.
99 dash      v rush 
100 treachery      n deceit.


1 vanquish   v  defeat.
2  peninsula    n  large piece of land jutting into the sea.
3  buffer   n state between two areas of fighting.
4 brethren  n brothers, members of same association.
5  nomad    adj. travelling about, especially to find grass for the tribe's animals.
6 rural   adj. not urban.
7 taxation    n  taxes.
8 arbitrary  adj. taken at random.
9 gigantic   adj.  huge, colossal.
10  remove     v take away.
11 ascend  v  mount.
12  resource  n  source of supply for what is needed.
13  raid   n sudden attack.
14  beret   n round cloth hat with no peak.
15 evaluated  adj. calculated.
16  regiment   n group of soldiers commanded by a colonel.
17  murdering   n  killing someone illegally.
18  dismount from  v  get off.
19  foe    n enemy.
20 forelock n hair falling over the forehead.
21  gallop     n fast ride on a horse.
22 plundered  adj.  seized.
23 heap    n large pile.
24  retreating      adj. withdrawing from a battle.
25  ill-prepared   adj. not well prepared.
26  recruited    adj.  collected.
27 weigh up  v examine all the arguments for and against.
28  strategy     n planning of war.
29  ambush    n  surprise attack by hidden soldiers.
30 rear    n back part.
31 stubborn    adj. obstinate.
32  flow   v move along smoothly.
33 barren  adj. unable to have children or produce.
34 divert   v to change direction.
35 convey    v transport.
36  fate      n destiny.
37  storm   v capture by a strong attack.
38  willingly  adj. eagerly.
39 dignitary    n important person.
40  ditch   n  long trench alongside a road, for taking away water.
41  narrowest adj.  the smallest from one side to another.
42 cohort   n group of soldiers joined together.
43  overpower   v to overcome.
44  obstinacy  n firm attention.
45  juncture   n place where routes join.
46 overjoyed  adj.  very pleased.
47 onslaught  n fierce attack.
48 deputy   n  person who has the power to act for others.


1 daring     adj.  courageous, risky.
2  merely indulging    adj.  simply enjoying the pleasure of.
3 raiding   n attacking.
4  military tactic  n way of using troops and guns in war.
5  in the vicinity of  prep near.
6 lagging behind    adj. walking slowly behind.
7 under the leadership of    n under the orders of.
8 manoeuvering    n  moving so as to get an advantage over an enemy.
9  befall      v  happen.
10 muster                       v  gather.
11 plateau                      n flat high area of land.
12  imminent               adj. about to happen.
13  shrewd                  adj. wise.
14 evaporation           n  process of turning liquid into vapour.
15  offset                    adj.  counterbalanced.
16  council of war     n meeting of generals to discuss a coming battle.
17 zealously             adv.  eagerly.
18  reverse                   n  contrary.
19 martyrdom             n death for one's beliefs.
20  tighten                    v to make tight.
21  damp                     adj.  wet.
22 drip                           v  make water fall in drops.
23. conceal                   v to hide.


1  compiled    adj.  arranged.
2  parchment  n skins of animals which have been treated for writing on.
3  lengthy    adj. very long.
4 onerous  adj.  causing much care.
5 custody  n  charge, care.


1 faint    v to lose consciousness.
2 bequeath    v   to leave property. money to someone when you die.
3 coffin   n   long wooden box in which a dead person is buried.
4 extravagance   n excessive expense and luxury.
5 stunned  adj. shocked.
6  coward   n  person who is not brave.
7 venerable   adj.  old and respected.



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