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THE CONQUEST OF MECCA

The conquest of Mecca, according to the scholars of Siyrah, took place in Ramadan in the 8th year of Hijra. In the Glorious Qur'an, Allah, Most High, says,

"Not equal among you are these who spent (freely) and fought, before the victory (with those who did later). Those are higher in rank than those who spent (freely) and fought afterwards. But to all Allah promised a goodly (reward). And Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do.    (Al-Hadid: 10)    "

When comes the Help of Allah, and victory, and thou dost see the people enter Allah's Religion in crowds, celebrate the Praises of thy Lord, and pray for His forgiveness: for His is Oft-Returning (in forgiveness).    (AN-Nasr:1-3)   "

The Occasion of the Conquest of Mecca

Despite the improved relations between Mecca and Medina after the signing of the Treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah, the ten-year peace was to be broken by Quraish who, with their allies, the tribe of Bakr, attacked the tribe of Khuza'ah where allies of the Muslims and when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) heard of the attack he immediately ordered his men to prepare fro was Later, the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) informed the men that he was going to Mecca and ordered them to make careful preparations. He said, "O Allah, take the eyes and ears from Quraish so that we may take them by surprise in their land. " Consequently. the men got themselves ready.

The Affair of Hatib Ibn Abi Bata'ah

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Ubaid Allah Ibn Rafi that the later said, 'I heard  Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) say, Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent me, Abu Marthad and Az-Zubair, and all of us were riding horses, and said, "Go until you reach Raudat-Khakh where there is a pagan women carrying a Mecca." So we found her riding her camel at the place which Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had mentioned. We said (to Her), '(Give us) the letter.' She said, 'I have no letter.' Then we made her camel kneel down and we searched her, but we found no letter. Then we said, 'Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had not told us a lie, certainly. Take out the letter, otherwise we will strip you naked.'  When she saw that we were determined, she put her hand below her waist belt, for she had tied her cloak round her waist, and she took out the letter, and we brought her to Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Then Umar said, 'O Allah's Messenger! (This Hatib) had betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the believers! Let me cut off his neck!' The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked Hatib,     "  what made you do this?  "      Hatib Said, 'By Allah, I did not intend to give up my belief in Allah and His Messenger but I wanted to have some influence among the Mecca people so that through it, Allah might protect my family and property. There is none of your Companions but has some of his relatives there through whom Allah protects his family and property.'  The Peophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,    "  He has spoken the truth; do no say to him but good.  "     Umar said, 'He as betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the faithful believers. Let me cut off his neck!' The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,     "  Is he not one of the Badr warriors? May be Allah looked at the Badr warriors and said, 'Do whatever you  like, as I have granted Paradise to you, or said, as I have forgiven you.  "On this, tears come out of Umar's eyes, and he said, 'Allah hand His Messenger know better.' "

Therefore, Allah, Most High, had revealed the Surah that begins with.

"O Ye who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or protectors), offering them (your) love, even though they have rejected the Truth that has come to you, and have (no the contrary) driven out the Messenger and yourselves (from your homes), (simply) because ye believe in Allah, you Lord! If you have came out to strive in My way and to seek My good pleasure, Showing friendship into them in secret: for I know full well all that ye conceal and all that ye reveal. And any of you that does this has strayed from the straight path.    (Al-Mumtahinah: 1)  "

Muslims Goes to Mecca

On the 10th of Ramadan, 8 AH, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) went on his journey and put over Medina Abu Ruham Kulrhim Ibn Hussayn. In this context, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) that the latter said, 'Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) traveled in the month of Ramadan and he fasted until he reached (a place called) Usfan, then he asked for a tumbler of water and drank it by the daytime so that the people might see him. He broke his fast until he reached Mecca.'     Ibn Abbas used to say, 'Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) fasted and sometime did not fast while traveling, so one may fast or may not (on journeys).'     However, it should be note that the Muslims number was 100.00 men.

 

Abu Sufiyan Embraces Islam          Top

Hisham's father., according to Al-Bukhari, narrated that when Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) set out (towards Mecca) during the year of the Conquest of Mecca and this news reached the infidels of Quraish, Abu Sufyan, Hakim Ibn Hizam and Budail Ibn Warqa come out to gather information about Allah Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).     They proceeded on their way until they reached a place called Marr-az-Zahran (which is near Meccah). Behold! There they saw many fires as if they were the fires of Arafat. Abu Sufyan said, 'What is this?' It looked like the fires of Arafat.' Budail Ibn Warqa said, 'Banu Amr are less in number than that.'

Some of the guards of Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) saw them and took them over, caught them and brought them to Allah's Messenger. Abu Sufyan embraced Islam. When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) proceeded, he said to Al-Abbas,     "Keep Abu Sufyan standing at the top of the mountain so that he would look at the Muslims."      SO Al-Abbas kept him standing (At that place) and the tribes with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) started passing in front of Abu Sufyan in military batches. A batch passed and Abu Sufyan  said. 'O Abbas Who are these?'  Abbas said, 'They are Banu Ghifar.' Abu Sufyan said, 'I have got nothing to do with Ghifar.' Then a batch of the tribe of Juhaina passed by and he said similarly as above. Then a batch f the tribe Sa'd Ibn Huzaim passed by and he said similarly as above. Then Banu Sulaim passed by and he said similarly as above, Then came a batch, the like of which Abu Sufyan had not seen. He said, 'Who are these?' Abbas said, 'They are the Ansar headed by Sa'd Ibn Ubadah, the one holding the flag.'

Sa'd Ibn Ubadah said, 'O Abu Sufyan! Today is they day of a great battle and today (what is prohibited in)the Ka'bah will be permissible.' Abu Sufyan said, 'O Abbas! How excellent the day of destruction is!'  Then came another batch of warriors which was the smallest of all the batches, and in it there was Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and his Companions and the flag of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was carried by Az-Zubair Ibn Al-Awwam.

When Allah's Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) passed by Abu Sufyan, the latter said, (to the Prophet), 'Do you know shat Sa'd Ibn Ubadah said?' The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,      "  What did he say?  "     Abu Sufyan said, He said, 'Today is they day of a great battle and today (what is prohibited in)the Ka'bah will be permissible.' On that Allah's Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

"Sa'd told a lie, but today Allah will give superiority to the Ka'bah and today the Ka'bah will be covered with a (cloth) covering.  "    Allah's Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered that his flag be fixed at Al-Hajun. 

Al-Bukhari also narrated that Urwah said that Nafi Ibn Jubair Ibn Mut'im said, 'I heard AL-Abbas saying to Az-Zubair Ibn Al-Awwam, 'O Abu Abdullah! Did Allah's Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) order you to fix the flag here?'

Allah's Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered Khalid Ibn Al-Walid to enter Mecca from its upper from Ka'bah while the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) himself entered from Kuda. Two men from the cavalry of Khalid Ibn Al-Walid named Hubaush Ibn Al -Ash'ar and Kurz Ibn Jabir Al-Fihri were martyred on the day.

 

The Description of the Prophet's Entry into Mecca          Top

Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said, 'During the year of the Conquest Mecca, Allah's Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Mecca through Kada which was at the upper part of Mecca.     Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated on the authority of Anas Ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) that the latter said that on the day of the Conquest,  Allah's Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Mecca, wearing a helmet on his head. When he took it off, a man came and said,  'Ibn Khatal is clinging to the curtain of the the Ka'bak.'  Allah's Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said     "Kill him"     Al-Bukhari moreover, narrated on the authority of Abdullah Ibn Mughaffal that the latter said that I saw Allah's Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) on the day of Conquest of Mecca over his she-camel, reciting Surat-al-Fath in a vibrant quivering tone.     Mu'awiyah commented on this, saying,  'Were I not afraid that the people may gather aroung me, I would recite in vibrant quivering tone as he (Abdullah Ibn Mughafal) did, imitating Allah's Messenger.'      

Muslims had been ordered by Allah's Messenger  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) not to cause any harm unless anyone tried to stop them entering. However,  According to Ibn Ishaq Safwan Ibn Umayyah,  Ikrimah Ibn Abi Jahl and Suhail Ibn Amr had called some men in Al-Khandama to fight. Himas Ibn Qays Ibn Khalid, brother of Ibn Bakr was sharpening his sword before the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Mecca, and his wife asked him why he was doing so. When he told her it was for Muhammad and his companions she said that she did not think that it would do them any haram. He answered that he hoped to give hr one of them as a salve. Then he went to Al-Khandama with Safwan, Suhayl, and Ikrimah and when the Muslims under Khaild arrived a skirmish followed in which Kurz Ibn Jabir, one of the tribe of Muharib Ibn Fihr, and Hubais Ibn Khalid Ibn Rabi'ah Ibn Asram, and ally of the tribe of Munqidh, who were in Khalid's cavalry, were killed. The had taken a road of their own apart from Khalid adn were killed together. Salamah Ibn Al-Mayla, one of Khalid's horsemen, was killed, and the polytheists lost about 12 or 13 men; then they took to fight.  The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had instructed his Commanders when they entered Mecca only to fight those who resisted them, except a small number who were to be killed even if they found beneath the curtains of Ka'bah. Among them were Abdullah Ibn Sa'd Ibn Abi Sarh, Abdullah Ibn Khadl and Al-Huwairth Ibn Naqid Ibn Wahb Ibn Abd Qasa.

In his Sahih , Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Abdullah that, 'When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) entered Mecca on the Day of the Conquest, there were 360 idols around the Ka'bah. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) started striking them with a stick he had in his hand and was saying,     "  A Truth has come and falsehood will neither start nor will it reappear.  "      Moreover, Al-Bukhari on the authority of Abdullah Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) arrived at Mecca in the year of the Conquest while Usamah was riding behind him on (his she-camel). Al-Qaswa, Bilal and Uthman Ibn Talha were accompanying him. When he made his she-camel kneel down near the Ka'bah, he said to Uthman.     "  Get us the key (of the Ka'bah).  "     He brought the key to him and opened the gate of the Ka'bah, fro him. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), Usamah , Bilal and Uthman entered the Ka'bah and then closed the gate behind them from inside, The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed there for a long period and then came out. The People rushed to get in, but I went in before them and found Bilal standing behind the gate, and I said to him, 'Where did the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) pray?'  He said, 'He prayed between those two front pillars.'  The Ka'bah was built on six pillars, arranged in two rows, and he prayed between the two pillars of the front row leaving the gate of the Ka'bah at his back and facing (in Prayer)  the wall which faces one when one enters the Ka'bah. Between him and that wall (was the distance of about three cubits). But I forgot to ask Bilal about the number of Rakat (units in Prayer) the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had Prayed. There was a red piece of marble at the place where the the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had offered the Prayer.

Mujahid, according to Al-Bukhari, also reported that Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got up on the day the Conquest of Mecca and said,

"Allah has made Mecca a sanctuary since the day He created the Heavens and the Earth, and it will remain a sanctuary by virtue of the sanctity Allah has bestowed on it until the Day of Resurrection. It (fighting in it) was not made lawful to anyone before me. nor will it be made lawful to anyone after me, and it was not made lawful for me except for a short period of time. Its animals (that can be hunted) should no be chased, nor should its trees be cut, nor its vegetation or grass uprooted, not its Luqata (most things) picked up except by one who makes a public announcement about it.  "

Al-Abbas Ibn Abdul Muttalib said, 'Except the Idhkhir, O Allah's Messenger, as it is indispensable for blacksmiths and houses.'  On that, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) kept quiet and then said,    "Except the Idhkhir as it is lawful to cut."     Abu Shuriah narrated that he said to Amr Ibn Sa'id  while the latter was sending troops in batches to Mecca, 'O chief! Allow me to tell you a statement which Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said on the second day of the Conquest of Mecca. My two ears heard it and my heart remembered it and may two eyes saw him when he said it. He (the prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) praised Allah and then said,

"Mecca has been made a sanctuary by Allah and not by the people, so it is not lawful for a person, who believes in Allah and the Last Day to shed blood in it, or to cut its trees and if someone asks the permission to fight in Mecca because Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was allowed to fight in it, say to him, 'Allah permitted His Messenger and did not allow you, and even he (the Messenger) was allowed for a short period of the day, and today its (Mecca's) sanctity has become the same as it was before (of old) so those who are present should inform those who are absent (this Hadith).  "

According to Al-Bukhari, Salim's father narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent Khaild invited them to the tribe of Jadhimah and Khalid invited them to Islam but they could not express themselves by saying, "Aslamna (we have embraced Islam)," but they started saying "Saba'na! Saba'na (we have come out of one religion to another)." Khalid kept on killing (some of) them and taking (some of ) them as captives and gave every one of us his Captive. When there came the day then Khalid orederd that each man should kill his captive, I said, 'By Allah, I will not kill my captive, and none of my companions will kill his captive.' When we reached the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), we mentioned to him the whole story. On that, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) raised both his hands and said twice,  "O Allah! I am free from what Khaild has done.  "

 

The Prophet Stay in Mecca          Top

The Scholars of Siyrah are unanimously agreed that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed the remaining days of Ramadan in Mecca shortening the Prayers and not fasting.  in this context, Al-Bukhari narrated that Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) said. 'We stayed in Mecca for ten days along with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and used to offer shortened Prayed (journey prayers).'    Also Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) stayed in Mecca for 19 days during which he prayed 2 Rak'at in each Prayer (that consists of 4 Rak'at, anymely Zuhar, Asr And Maghrib Prayers).

The Prophet's Judgments During His Stay in Mecca

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari reported some of the Prophet's Judgement during his stay in Mecca, Following are some of his narrations:

Aishah (my Allah be pleased with her) said that Utbah Abi Waqqas authorized his brother Sa'd to take the sone of the slave-girl of Zam'ah into his custody, Utbah said 'He is my son.' When Allah 's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) arrived in Mecca during the Conquest , Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqas took him to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Abd Ibn Zam'ah too came along with him. Sa'd daid, 'This is the son of my brother and the latter has informed me that he is his son.'  Abd Ibn Zam'ah said, 'O Allah's Messenger! This is my brother who is the son of the slave-girl of Zam'ah and was born on his Zama'ah bed.'

Allah 's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) looked at the son of the slave-girl of Zam'ah and noticed that he, of all the people had the greatest resemblance to Utbah Ibn Abi Waqqas. Allah 's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) then said, to abd,    "  He is yours: he is your brother, O Abd Ibn Zam'ah, he was born on the bed of your father.  "     At the same time Allah 's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to his wife Sawadh,    "  Veil yourself before him (the son of the slave-girl) O Sauda,  "     because of the resemblance he noticed between him and Utbah Ibn Abi Waqqas. Allah 's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) added,     "  The boy is for the bed (for the owner of the bed where he was born), and stone is for the adulterer.  "    Urwah Ibn Az-Zubair reported that a lady committed theft during the lifetime of Allah 's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in the Ghazwah of Al-Fath (Conquest of Mecca). Her folk went to Usamah Ibn Zaid to intercede for her (with the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)s. When Usamah interceded for her with Allah 's Messenger, the color of the face of Allah 's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) changed and he said,     "  Do you intercede with me in a matter involving one of the legal punishments prescribed by Allah?  "     Usamah said, 'O Allah 's Messenger!  Ask Allah's Forgiveness for me.'  So in the afternoon, Allah 's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got up and addressed the people. He praised Allah as He deserved adn then said,

"......... The nations prior to you were destroyed because if a noble amongst them stole, they used to excuse him, an if a poor person amongst them stole, they would apply (Allah's) Legal punishment to him. By Him in Whose Hand Muhammad's soul is, if Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad stole I would cut her hand.  "

Then Allah 's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gave his order in the case of that woman and her hand was cut off. Afterwards her repentance proved sincere and she got married. Aishah said, "That lady used to visit me and I used to convey her demands to Allah 's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)."

On the day of the Conquest of Mecca, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) took the pledge of both men and women to testify that there is no god but Allah Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and to embrace Islam. According to Ahmad, the Messenger of (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) took the pledge of people to believe in Allah and to testify that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah

In the Glorious Qur'an, We read,

"Prophet! When believing women come to thee to take the oath of fealty to thee, that they will not associate in worship any other thing whatever with Allah, that they will not steal, that they will not commit adultery  (or fornication)., that they will not kill their children, that they will not utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood, and that they will not disobey thee in any just matter, then do thou receive their fealty, and pray to Allah for the forgiveness (of their sins): for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.    (Al-Mumtahinah:12)  "

Majashi, according to Al-Bukhari, said, 'I took my brother to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) after the Conquest of the Mecca and said,  'O Allah's Messenger! I have come to you with my brother so that you may take a pledge of allegiance from him for migration.' The Prophet  (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,    "  The people of migration (those who migrated to Medina before the Conquest) enjoyed the privileges of migration (there is no need fro migration anymore).  "     I said, to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)  'For what will you take his pledge of allegiance?' Allah 's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,    "  I will take his pledge of allegiance for Islam, Belief, and for Jihad (fighting in Allah's Cause).  "   

Mujhid, likewise, said, 'I said to Ibn Umar 'I want to migrate to Syria.' He said, 'There is no migration, but Jihad for Allah's Cause. Go and offer yourself for Jihad, and if you find an opportunity for Jihad (stay there) otherwise, come back,'      In an other narration, Ibn Umar said, 'There is no migration today or after Allah's Messenger.' Then he completed his statement as above.

Ibn Abbas said, 'Umar used to admit me along with the old men who had fought in the Badr battle. Some of them said, 'Why do you allow this young man to enter with us, while we have sons of his own age?'  Umar said, 'You know what person he is.' One day Umar called tem and called me along with them, I had thought he called me on that day to show them something about me (my knowledge). Umar asked them, 'What do you say about (the Surah) that reads,

"When comes the Help of Allah and the Victory, and thou dost see people enter Allah's Religion in crowds. Celebrate the Praises of they Lord and pray for His forgiveness: for He is Oft-Returning (in forgiveness).    (An-Nasr: 1-3)  "

Some of them replied. 'We are ordered to praise Allah and repent to Him if we are helped and granted victory.' Some said, 'We do not know.' Other kept quiet. Umar then said 'What do you say then? 'I said, 'This Qur'anic verse indicates the approaching of the death of Allah 's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) of which Allah informed him. When comes the help of Allah and the Conquest, the Conquest of Mecca, that will be the sign of your Prophet's approaching death, so testify the uniqueness of your Lord (Allah) and praise Him and repent to Him as He is ready to forgive.' On that Umar said, 'I do not know about it anyting other than what you know.'

Amr Ibn Salamah said, 'We were at a place which was a thoroughfare for the people, and the caravans used to pass by us and we would ask them, 'What is wrong with the people> What is wrong with the People? Who is the man?' They would say,  'That man claims that Allah has sent him (as a Messenger), that he has been divinely inspired, and that Allah has revealed to him such-and-such.' I used to memorize that (Divine) Talk, and feel as if it was inculcated in my chest (mind) and the Arabs (other than Quraish) delayed their conversion to Islam until the Conquest of Mecca. They used to say,  'Leave him (Muhammad) and his people Quraish: if he overpowers them then he is a true Prophet. So, when Mecca was conquest, then every tribe rushed t embrace Islam, and my father hurried to embrace Islam before (the other member of) my tribe. When my father returned (from the Prophet) to his tribe, he said,  'By Allah, I have come to you from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) for sue!' Allah 's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) afterwards said to them,  

 "Offer such-and-such Prayer at such-and-such time, and when the time for the prayer becomes due, then one of you should pronounce the Azan (the call to prayer), and let the one amongst you who knows Qur'an most should, lead the Prayer.  "

So the looked for such a person and found none who knew more Qur'an than I because of the Qurainc material which I used to learn form the caravans. They therefore made me their Imam (to lead the preayer) adn at that time I was a boy of six or seven years, wearing a Burda (a black square garment) proved to be very short for me (and my body become partly naked). A lady from the tribe said, 'Won't you cover the anus of your reciter for us?' So they bought (a piece of cloth) and made a shirt for me. I had never been so happy with anything before as I was with that shirt.'

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