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THE BATTLE HUNAIN

Speaking about this battle, the Glorious Qur'an says,

" Assuredly Allah did help you in many battle-fields and no the Day of Hunain: behold: your great numbers elated you but they availed you naught; that land, for all that if is wide, did constrain you, and ye turned back in retreat. But Allah did pour His clan on the Messenger and on the Believers, and sent down forces, which ye saw not: He punished the unbelievers: thus doth He reward those without faith. Again will Allah, after this, turn (in mercy) to whom He wills; for Allah is Off-Forgiving, Most Merciful.`(At-Tawabah:25-27) "

According to the majority of scholars of Siyrah, the battle of Hunain took place in Shawwal, AH. 

The Occasion of the Battle

When Hawazin, a neighboring tribe of Mecca, heard the news of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and the Conquest of Mecca, they made an agreement with another tribe from Ta'if, called Thaqif, to fight the Muslims and destroy them before they could spread their religion throughout Arabia. Other tribes joined these two tribes.       

Malik Ibn Awf, the chief of Hawazin, put forward a plan. He ordered his men to bring their families and belongings with them thinking that his would compel his men to fight fiercely. Durayd, an old, blind man, blamed him for doing so arguing that,  "If a man is so cowardly as to leave the battle, then he will leave his family as well. The women and children will be a great worry for us and if we are defeated all our wealth will fall into the enemy hands."  But Malik ignored this advice and stuck to his original plan.

When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) heard what the enemy tribes were planning, he found himself forced to fight and ordered his army towards Ta'if,

The March of the Muslim Army

the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ,arched with 2.00 Maccans and 10.000 of his Companions who had gone out with him when he conquered Mecca; 12.000 in all The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) left in charge of Mecca Attab Ibn Asid Ibn Abdu Al-Is Ibn Umayyah to look after the men who had stayed behind. Then he went forward to meet Hawazin.

The Commence of War          Top

According to Ibn Ishaq, Jabir Ibn Abdullah who witnessed Hunain, said, "When we approached the vallay of Hunain we come through a valley wide and sloping. We were descending gradually in the morning twilight. Then enemy had got there before us and had hidden themselves in it by paths and side tracks and narrow places. The had collected and were fully prepared, and by Allah we were terrified when, as we were coming down, the squadrons attacked us on man, the people fled none heeding the other. The men ran away except that a number of Muhajrun and Ansar and men of his family remained with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). The Muhajirun who stood firm were Abu Bakr and Umar: of his family Ali, Al- Abbas, and Abu Sufyan Ibn Al-Harith and his son and Al-Fadl Ibn Abbas, Rabi Ibn Al- Harith, Usamah Ibn Zaid and Ayman Ibn Umm Ayman Ibn Ubaid who was killed that day.

On seeing the men fleeing, The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) withdrew to the right and said,     " Where are you going, men? Come to me. I am Allah's Messenger. I am Muhammad the son of Abdullah."     And not for nothing did the camels bump one into the other    In this context, Al-Bukhari narrated on the authority of Abu Ishaq who said,  "I heard Al-Bara' narration when a man come and said to hi,  'O Abu Umara! Did you flee on the day of Hunain?'  Al-Bara' replied, 'I testify that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not flee, but the hasty people hurried away and the people of Hawazin threw arrows at them. At that time, Abu Sufyan Ibn Al-Harith was holding the whit mule of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) by the head, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was saying,    "I am the Prophet undoubtedly: I am the son of Abdul-Muttalib."     Finally a hundred men were gathered by him and they went forward and fought. At first the cry was,  'to mw, Ansar!'  And  finally, 'to me Khazraj!' They were steadfast in the fight. The men went on fighting and those who has run away returned; they found only prisoners handcuffed with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Manyu disbelievers were killed and they were defeated. Allah granted His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) their property and children as booty.
        According to Al-Bukhari, Abu Qarada narrated,  "We set out along with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) during the year of Hunain, and when we faced the enemy, the Muslims (with the exception he Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, and some of his companions) retreated (before the enemy). I saw one of the pagans over-powering one of the Muslims, so I struck the pagan from behind his neck causing his armor to be cut off. The pagan headed towards me and pressed me so forcibly that I felt as if I was dying. The death took him over and he released me. 

Afterwards I followed 'Umar and said to him, 'What is wrong wit the people?' He said, 'It is the Order of Allah, Then Muslim returned the the battle after the fight and after overcoming the enemy the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)  sat and said,

" Whoever had killed on Infidel and has an evidence to this issue, will have the Sulb (the belonging of deceased e.g., clothes, arms, horse, etc). "

I said, 'Who  will be my witness?' and then sat down. Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) repeated his question. The the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said the same for the third time. I got up and said, 'Who will be my witness?' and then sat down. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked his former question again. So I got up. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, 'What is the matter, O Abu Qatada?' So I narrated the whole story; A man said, 'Abu Qatada has spoken the truth, and the Salab of the deceased is with me, so please compensate Abu Qatada on my behalf.' Abu Bakr said, 'No! By Allah, it will never happen that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) will leave a Lion of Allah who fights for the Sake of Allah and His Messenger and give his spoils to you.' The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,     " Abu Bakr has spoken the truth. Give it the spoils back to him O man. "     So he gave it to me and I bought a garden in Banu Salamah with it the spoils and that was the first property I got after embracing Islam."

When the spoils were collected, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) ordered his Companions to take it to Al-Ja'franah. Mas'ud Ibn Amr Al-Ghigari was put by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in charge of the spoils.

The Division of the spoils          Top

        In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari narrated the following ahadith that refer to the division of the spoils at Hunain:     Marawan and Al-Miswar Ibn Makrama narrated that when the delegate of Hawazin come to Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) declaring their conversion to Islam and asked him to return their properties and captives, Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got up and said to him,

" There Is involved in this matter, the people whom you see with me, and the most beloved talk to me, is the true one. So choose one of two alternatives: Either the captives or the properties. I have been waiting for you (have not distributed the booty).  "

Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had delayed the distribution of their booty over ten nights after his return form Ta'if. So when the came to know that Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was not going to return to them but one of the two, they said,    "We prefer to have our captives."     So Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) got up amongst the Muslims, and praising Allah as He deserved, said,

"To proceed! Your brothers have come to you with repentance and I see (it logical) to return their captives. So, whoever of you likes to do that as a favor then he can do it. And whoever of you likes to stick to his share until we give him form the very first booty which Allah will give us, then he can do so."     and again said,    "We do not know which of you have agreed to it and which have not; so go back and let your chiefs forward us your decision.  "

They went back and their chief's spoke to them, and they return to Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and informed him that all of them had agreed (to give up their captives) with pleasure, and had given their permission (that the captives be returned to their people).

Anas narrated that when it was the day of Hunain, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) confronted the tribe of Hawazin while there ten-thousand men besides the Tulaqa (those who had embraced Islam on the day of the Conquest of Mecca) with the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. When they fled, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,    "  O the group of Ansar!  "     the replied,  "Labbaik (here we are at your service), O  Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and Sa'daik! We are under your command." Then the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,    "I am Allah's servant and His Messenger."

Then the pagans were defeated. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) distributed the war booty amongst the Tulaqa' and Muhajirun and did not give anything to the Ansar. So the Ansar spoke (were dissatisfied) and he called them and made them enter a leather tent and said,

"Won't you be pleased that the people take the sheep and camels, and you take Allah's Messenger along with you.  "     The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) added    "  If the people took their way through a valley and the Ansar took their way through a mountain pass, then I would choose a mountain pass of the Ansar.  "

Anas also narrated that when it was the day of the Conquest of Mecca Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) distributed the war booty amongst the people of Quraish, which caused the Ansar to become angry, So The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

"Won't you be pleased that the people take the worldly things  and you take Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) with you.  "

They said, "Yes" The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

"If the people took their way through a valley or mountain pass I would take my way through the Ansar's valley or mountain pass. 

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